St. George & the Dragon: Dialogue with an Orthodox Priest (Harry H. McCall, 2012)

NOTE: Most modern orthodox commentators have rationalized the icon of St. George slaying the dragon as “purely symbolic art” with varying interpretations of the symbolism. Protestant fundamentalist, and some Orthodox Christians who have bought into the creationist science theories, take the icon as one more proof of man’s co-existence with dinosaurs even after the Flood.

However Orthodox Christians want to interpret their St. George icon the fact remains that the greatest “God-inspired luminaries of the Church” not only believed in the allegorical dragon–Satan–but they also believed in the existence of real dragons (as well as unicorns and other mythological creatures mentioned in the Bible). St. John Damascene, St. Athanasios the Great, St. John Chrysostom, St. Ephraim the Syrian, etc. are just a few of the Church Fathers who have written about the “real existence” of imaginary creatures. Orthodox Saints have been slaying dragons since the beginning of Christianity (see the Life of Apostle Thomas and Apostle Philip)

Some other pre-Schism Orthodox Saints who have battled or slain dragons: St. Adelphus, Bishop of Metz; St. Areml; St. Beatus; St. Bertrand; St. Cain; St. Clemens; St. Donatus; St. Hilarion; St. Lupus, Bishop of Sens; St. Magnus, the Apostle of the Allagu (south Germany); St. Mangold; St. Marina(Margaret) of Antioch; St. Narcissus of Gerona; St. Nikolaus; St. Philip the Apostle; St. Procopius; St. Romain; St. Servan; St. Sylvester I, Pope of Rome; St. Theodore Tyron; St. Thomas the Apostle; St. Urgin (This is, of course, not a complete list)!

The following article is one South Carolina man’s quest at the meaning behind the icon of St. George and the Dragon:

Iconostasis of Chapel in lower level of Saint George Greek Orthodox Cathedral Greenville, SC
Iconostasis of Chapel in lower level of Saint George Greek Orthodox Cathedral
Greenville, SC

Christian “truth” is fabricated and propagated by Christian tradition and one of my favorites deals with my experience at Saint George Greek Orthodox Church here in Greenville, S.C.

While attending its annual spring Greek festival, I noticed the church was open so visitors could venture inside to get an introduction to the Greek Orthodox tradition and its icons, so I decided to check it out. As I entered, I was given a brief printed history which included the claim that the Greek Orthodox Church was the ONLY TRUE Christian Church established by Jesus Christ himself. (Wow, and I thought it was the Mormons!)
On the wall in front of the church is a large iconic mural of a knight on a white horse who had just slain a dragon. The guide told visitors that the icon depicted Saint George as a righteous knight who killed a dragon (a creature pictured with bat like wings and a snake like neck and head) who had terrorized a village for a number of years. The guide told us, by killing the evil dragon, George became a Saint: Thus the name of Greenville’s Saint George Greek Orthodox Church.

Icon of St. George slaying the dragon at St. Anthony's Greek Orthodox Monastery, Inc. (Florence, AZ)
Icon of St. George slaying the dragon at St. Anthony’s Greek Orthodox Monastery, Inc. (Florence, AZ)

After considering the logical reality behind this dogma, I decided to call Saint George Greek Orthodox Church and ask if they really thought dragons existed.

The church’s secretary (who was herself a Methodist) told me she would have to refere this question to the priest (Father Tom) who was out of town, but she would have him call me.

One morning (several weeks later) the phone rang and a man identified himself as Father Tom from St. George’s Church (who seemed to have been given the impression that I was a potential member).

After a few formalities, the conversation focused on St. George killing the dragon and went as follows:

Harry: Could you tell me about Saint George Killing the dragon.

To which Father Tom basically recounted what the church guide stated about the miracle of St. George killing the dragon that had terrorized a village.

Harry: So there was a real flying dragon that terrorized some ancient village?

Father Tom: Well, the dragon which St. George killed was, in reality Satan, and by killing Satan; George freed the village from the dragon’s destruction.

Harry: What you’re telling me then is that Satan is now dead?

Father Tom: No! Satan is not dead! St. George killed the dragon just as the icon depicts.

Harry: (Thinking I must have missed something) . . . But was there a real dragon that flew and terrorized an ancient village?

Father Tom: (Now getting angry) Who are you? You’re not a Greek Orthodox are you?

Harry: No (I decided it was not a good idea to tell him I was an Atheist).

Father Tom: I’ll tell you one thing! You and the rest of you so-called Christians will stand before Christ at the judgment and there you WILL give an account to him as to just why you are not Greek Orthodox (with that final comment, he hung-up)!

Frankly, I knew no more about the matter of St. George and the flying dragon than before he called.

(What I had done was to not only questioned religious dogma, but by pressing Father Tom on the dragon, I was then given the wrath of God and Hell as a future judgment for my soul (par for the course in Christianity)!



I work with a former Southern Baptist (I’ll call him Jim) who joined St. John of the Ladder Orthodox Church which also venerates St. George. I told Jim about my experience with Father Tom and I asked him how he dealt with questions regarding St. George and the dragon? Jim told me he hadn’t really thought about it.

A week later, I got an email from headquarters telling me Jim had filed a formal complaint with them in that I was harassing him over his religious beliefs and it would be in my best interest not to bring the matter up again with him!

When pressed on the reality of St. George and the dragon, Lvka (herself an Orthodox and a regular DC commenter) linked me to this sign:

chruch sign


Novgorod, 1400-1500
Novgorod, 1400-1500

From the church’s website:

If you’ve been looking for a Church that is, Orthodox in morals, Orthodox in doctrine, Orthodox in worship, you’ve probably been looking for the Orthodox Church. Please know that Fr. Tom and Deacon Charles are always ready to sit down with you and talk about Orthodox Christianity. Many before you have walked the path and asked the questions that you have. Our faith is personal. One can learn a little by reading, but the Christian faith is a living faith, and is properly transmitted from person to person. People who are interested in the Orthodox Church are encouraged to come to the Saint George Greek Orthodox Cathedral, attend actual services, meet flesh-and-blood Orthodox Christians, and talk with Fr. Tom and Deacon Charles. We have regular classes about the Orthodox faith where you can also learn more about Orthdoxoy. Contact the office for information.

Well, if you love morals that include myths with lies to cover them up, I’m sure you’ll love the Orthodox doctrine and worship!

Nice detective work on Wike, but the website of the Orthodox Church does not use Wiki.

Their own description of not only the dragon, but Saint George did 8 more miracles:

Here is a quick rundown of George’s life and it is good thing that the Holy Church Fathers weren’t like Pinocchio. If they had been cursed with Pinocchio’s punishment for lying, most all the Orthodox Holy Church Fathers could pole-vault over their cathedrals with their noses!

Saints Barbara, George, & Theodore
Saints Barbara, George, & Theodore

Now the life of St. Geroge as taught by the Orthodox Church (buckle your mental seat belts and kick your brain in neutral):

A. The Emperor ordered this George taken to prison and that a boulder be placed on his chest as a form of torture. The next morning Diocletian ordered that the prisoner be brought before him for questioning. George stood steadfast and told Diocletian of his belief in the riches of the Kingdom of Heaven.

B. The Emperor then summoned the executioners to take the George and have him bound to the rim of a wheel set with sharp spikes.// When the Saint appeared before Diocletian not only was he unharmed, but an angelic aura had settled about him. Suddenly, two officers of the Roman army, Anatolios and Protoleon, appeared before Diocletian with two thousand soldiers. They admitted their belief in Christ and Diocletian had them all executed.

C. He then ordered his soldiers to dig a pit and fill it with lime. The George was then drenched with water and thrown into the pit. The water and lime would slowly destroy the Saint’s body. After three days, Diocletian instructed the soldiers to clear the pit. To the surprise of the soldiers and the Emperor, Saint George sat at the bottom of the pit unharmed.

D. The Emperor then ordered that iron sandals be tied to the feet of the George and that he be made to run. As he ran, he was beaten. As he ran, he was beaten. One of Diocletian’s advisors, Magnentios, ordered George to perform a miracle. They happened to pass by a tomb of a man who had been dead for many years. // Diocletian asked the resurrected man who he was and when he had died. He told Diocletian that he had lived before Christ had come on the Earth, and because he was an idolater, he had burned in the fires of Hell during all those years. Many idolaters were converted to Christianity because of this great miracle.

E. The next day, Diocletian met with his noblemen to determine Saint George’s fate. They decided to beat the George mercilessly. The Saint nevertheless remained unharmed and retained his angelic appearance.

F. Diocletian was convinced that all of George’s miracles were done by magic. He, therefore, called upon Athanasius the Magician to break this magic. Athanasius held two vials in his hands. If the George drank the first one, he would go insane, if he drank the second one he would die. The George took the first vial and prayed. He drank its contents and there was no effect.

G. Once again George appeared before Diocletian who ordered that Saint George accompany him to the temple and sacrifice to the gods. When they arrived at the temple, Saint George made the sign of the cross and the idols were again destroyed. The people and the priests were furious and demanded that Diocletian have the Saint executed. Saint George was taken out of the city and as he turned his head toward the executioner, he was beheaded.

St. Theodore Tyron
St. Theodore Tyron

Then we come to the ONLY miracle (lie) St. George is really known for:

In the history of our Church, we find a myth related to a dragon and Saint George. This dragon threatened the idolaters in the area of Atalia. The people were forced to live inside the walls of their city. This prevented them from tending their fields and grazing their sheep. Every year, they would sacrifice a young girl to the dragon. When Saint George arrived in this area, the King’s daughter was about to be sacrificed. After subduing the dragon, Saint George placed a rope around its neck. He then gave the rope to the princess so that she could lead the beast back to the city. Thence, he slaughtered the terror and subsequently baptized thousands of the city’s inhabitants.

Pope Saint Sylvester overcomes the dragon of the Tarpeian Rock
Pope Saint Sylvester overcomes the dragon of the Tarpeian Rock

The problem allegory!  So why use language and terms that would never escape perjury in a court of law?

Thus, I could claim I have a million dollars in the bank, but I’m not talking about a real million dollars so let’s say my heart has a million dollars of love in it.  That’s great a nice harmless allegory, but try getting a car loan with that “fact”!

So here’s my view of St. George and the Dragon:  It was at one time a great belief in antiquity when most people were illiterate (by one estimate, only about 5% could read and write (China still has beliefs in dragons)), but as modern times arrived neither did George kill a real dragon nor does the Catholic Church hunt down and burnwitches anymore.   However, to totally deny the myth of the dragon tell would mean that George would no longer be a “saint”; something Orthodox tradition could not deal with!

So to keep any credibility for this myth of dragons to survive in the modern world, allegory has softened the harsh reality of a myth better known as a lie in a court of law. 

Great red dragon with seven heads from a scene illustrating chapter 12 of the book of Revelation of St. John. Late 18th c.

Orthodox Patristic “Cryptozoology” and Medieval Bestiaries

NOTE: Many of the Orthodox Church Fathers believed in the existence of mythological creatures. Some even wrote about their existence and described them in detail. The following article is by no means a complete index of Orthodox Patristic “cryptozoology,” which is quite an exhaustive subject: &

Also see:


St. Ambrose of Milan (d. 397): His commentary on the fourth day (creation of birds and fish) and fifth day (creation of land animals) [in the Hexameron] influenced the later writers of the bestiaries, who occasionally quote from him directly. Ambrose’s stature as a Father of the Church ensured that his account of the creation of animals would be accepted as true.

St. Augustine of Hippo (d. 430): In City of God, Augustine discusses the monstrous races of humans, giving the reports of their existence cautious acceptance. With the respect Augustine had in the Middle Ages, his opinions were taken seriously. His acceptance, though cautious, of some of the beast tales could only have made them more acceptable to later writers.

Isidore of Seville (d. 7th century): Book 12 of the Etymologies is about animals. Isidore took much of his information from Aristotle and Pliny, who also wrote about real and imaginary animals. Isidore, as usual, accepted whatever his sources told him; observation of the real world has little part in his “zoology.”

Hrabanus Maurus (d. 856): De rerum naturis (On the Nature of Things), also known as De universo, is an encyclopedia in 22 books, covering a large range of subjects. It was written between 842 and 847. Hrabanus’ stated intent was to compile an encyclopedic handbook for preachers. He drew on earlier sources for his information, particularly the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville, but the organization of the material was his own invention.

Book 8 is on animals. It is divided into seven chapters: De bestiis (“beasts”, mostly mammals); De minutis animantibus (small animals); De serpentibus (serpents, reptiles); De vermibus (“worms”, mostly insects); De piscibus (fish); De avibus (birds); De minutis avibus (small birds).

St. Photius the Great (d. 893): The most important of the works of Photios is his renowned Bibliotheca or Myriobiblon, a collection of extracts and abridgements of 280 volumes of classical authors (usually cited as Codices), the originals of which are now to a great extent lost. The work is especially rich in extracts from historical writers. It contains Ctesias’ Indica, which describes various mythological creatures.


Amphisbaena: The amphisbaena is a two-headed lizard or serpent. It has one head in the normal position, and another at the end of its tail. It can therefore run in either direction. Its eyes shine like lamps, and has no fear of cold. The name “amphibaena” is now given to a legless lizard that can move either forward or backward, though this is a relatively modern use of the name.

The amphisbaena has an extra head on its tail, allowing it to quickly run in either direction.
The amphisbaena has an extra head on its tail, allowing it to quickly run in either direction.

The amphisbaena has two heads, one in the proper place and one in its tail. It can move in the direction of eaither head with a circular motion. Its eyes shine like lamps. Alone among snakes, the amphisbaena goes out in the cold. (Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book 12, 4:20)

A two headed amphisbaena looks at itself.
A two headed amphisbaena looks at itself.

Ant-Lion (Μυρμηκολέων)

There are two interpretations of what an ant-lion is. In one version, the ant-lion is so called because it is the “lion of ants,” a large ant or small animal that hides in the dust and kills ants. In the other version, it is a beast that is the result of a mating between a lion and an ant. It has the face of a lion and and the body of an ant, with each part having its appropriate nature. Because the lion part will only eat meat and the ant part can only digest grain, the ant-lion starves.

The ant-lion story may come from a mistranslation of a word in the Septuagint version of the biblical Old Testament, from the book of Job (4:11). The word in Hebrew is lajisch, an uncommon word for lion, which in other translations of Job is rendered as either lion or tiger; in the Spetuagint it is translated as mermecolion, ant-lion.

A large spider-like ant-lion (right) faces an eight-legged ant.
A large spider-like ant-lion (right) faces an eight-legged ant.

“But in the translation of the seventy interpreters it does not say “the tiger” but “the ant-lion perished because it had no prey.” The ant-lion is a very small animal, enemy of the ant, which hides itself under the sand and kills ants carrying bits of grain, and then eats the ants. Ant-lion is said in Latin to be either “lion of ants” or at least, more precisely, “both ant and lion.” It is rightly said to be both ant and lion, because by comparison to flying things, or to other small animals, it is an ant, but to the ants it is a lion. It devours them like a lion, but it is devoured by the other animals like an ant. When therefore Eliphaz says, “The ant-lion perished,” what is he attacking in blessed Job under this name if not both fear and boldness? As if to say openly: ‘You have not been struck unjustly, because you are timid against the strong, but bold against the weak.’ As if to say openly: ‘Against the clever, fear restrained you, but against the simple, cockiness puffed you up. But the ant-lion does not have its prey because your timid pride is beset by blows and kept from wounding others.’ But because we said the friends of blessed Job stood for heretics, it is important for us to say how these words of Eliphaz can be interpreted allegorically. … (Section 43): This beast spotted with such diversity is rightly called a tiger, though called by the seventy interpreters as we said before, an ant-lion. That animal hides in the dust, as we said, to kill ants carrying bits of grain. So also the apostate angel, cast down on earth from heaven, ambushes the minds of the just as they prepare for themselves nourishment on the path leading to good works. And when he defeats them from ambush, he is like an ant-lion unexpectedly killing ants bearing grain. But he is rightly called an ant-lion, that is lion-and-ant: for he is a lion to the ants, but to the birds a mere ant, because to those who yield to him the ancient enemy is strong, but to those who resist him he is feeble. If his suggestions find assent, he is as unstoppable as the lion; but if they are resisted, he is stepped on like an ant. To some therefore he is a lion, to others an ant. Minds devoted to the flesh can scarcely endure his cruelty, while spiritual minds step on his weakness with the foot of virtue. So heretics, because they take pride in their presumed holiness, say as if rejoicing, “The ant-lion,” or at least, “The tiger perished, because he had no prey.” As if to say openly: ‘The old adversary does not have prey in us because for our purposes he already lies beaten.’ So he is mentioned again with the name of ant-lion or tiger because he had already been said to be trampled on in the roar of the lion: for whatever is said out of joy is often repeated.” (St. Gregory the Great, Moralia in Job, Book V, chapter 20, section 40)

“The ant-lion is so called either because it is equally lion and ant, or because it is the lion of ants. It is a small animal that is hostile to ants; it hides in the sand and kills other ants that are carrying grain. In this way it is like a lion to ants though it is like an ant to other animals.” (Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book 12, 3:10)


Asp [The Haemorrhois, Prester and Hypnalis are other varieties of asp]: “…they are like the deaf adder that stops her ear; which will not hearken to the voice of charmers, charming never so wisely” (Psalm 58:56).

To avoid hearing the charm being spoken by the magician, the asp presses one ear to the ground and blocks the other with its tail.
To avoid hearing the charm being spoken by the magician, the asp presses one ear to the ground and blocks the other with its tail.

“As indeed of asps it is said, that when they are lured by incantations, in order that they may not be drawn from their caves they press one ear to the ground, and use their tail to stop up the other, and yet the enchanter can bring it forth…). This appears to be the first time this method of blocking both ears was described.” (Augustine of Hippo, Sermo 316:2 – In Solemnitate Stephani Martyris; Duri Iudaei in Stephanum)

To avoid the sound of the enchanter's voice, the asp presses one ear to the ground and blocks the other with its tail. This asp seems to be breathing fire, perhaps to show its venomous nature.
This asp seems to be breathing fire, perhaps to show its venomous nature.

“The asp (aspis) kills with a venomous bite, and from this it gets its name, for the Greek word for poison is ios (as). When an enchanter calls an asp out of its cave by incantations and it does not want to go, it presses one ear to the ground and covers the other with its tail, so it cannot hear the enchantment. There are many kinds of asp, but not all are equally harmful. The dipsas is a kind of asp, called in Latin situla because one bitten dies of thirst. The hypnalis is a kind of asp that kills in sleep, as Cleopatra was freed by death as if by sleep when bitten by one. The haemorrhois is called an asp because anyone bitten by it sweats blood; for the Greek word for blood is haima. The prester (or praester) is a kind of asp that always runs with its steaming mouth open; one bitten becomes distended for rot follows the bite. (Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book 12, 4:12-16)

The asp blocks its ear so it can't hear the song of the enchanter.

Basilisk: The basilisk is usually described as a crested snake, and sometimes as a cock with a snake’s tail. It is called the king (regulus) of the serpents because its Greek name basiliscus means “little king”; its odor is said to kill snakes. Fire coming from the basilisk’s mouth kills birds, and its glance will kill a man. It can kill by hissing, which is why it is also called the sibilus. Like the scorpion it likes dry places; its bite causes the victim to become hydrophobic. A basilisk is hatched from a cock’s egg, a rare occurence. Only the weasel can kill a basilisk. Some manuscripts have separate entries and/or illustrations for the basilisk and the regulus, possibly because the basilisk account in Isidore has three sections, one each for the basilisk, the “kinglet” (reguli), and the sibilus. Where the regulus is treated separately, the bite of the basilisk causing hydrophobia is generally ascribed to the regulus.

The basilisk is half cock and half serpent.
The basilisk is half cock and half serpent.

“The basilisk is six inches in length and has white spots; it is the king (regulus) of snakes. All flee from it, for it can kill a man with its smell or even by merely looking at him. Birds flying within sight of the basilisk, no matter how far away they may be, are burned up. Yet the weasel can kill it; for this purpose people put weasels into the holes where the basilisk hides. They are like scorpions in that they follow dry ground and when they come to water they make men frenzied and hydrophobic. The basilisk is also called sibilus, the hissing snake, because it kills with a hiss.” (Isidore of Seville,Etymologies, Book 12, 4:6-9)

This basilisk is drawn as a legged serpent with a cock's head and feet. Its glance will kill a man.
This basilisk is drawn as a legged serpent with a cock’s head and feet. Its glance will kill a man.

Centaur: The centaur has the lower body of a horse and the upper body of a human.

The centaur has the lower body of a horse and the upper body of a human.
The centaur has the lower body of a horse and the upper body of a human.

St. Jerome’s version of the Life of St Anthony the Great, the hermit monk of Egypt, written by Athanasius of Alexandria, was widely disseminated in the Middle Ages; it relates Anthony’s encounter with a centaur, who challenged the saint but was forced to admit that the old gods had been overthrown. The episode was often depicted; notably, in the The Meeting of St Anthony Abbot and St Paul the Hermit by Stefano di Giovanni called “Sassetta”, of two episodic depictions in a single panel of the hermit Anthony’s travel to greet the hermit Paul, one is his encounter along the pathway with the demonic figure of a centaur in a wood.

The Meeting of Saint Anthony and Saint Paul, Master of the Osservanza, 15th century
The Meeting of Saint Anthony and Saint Paul, Master of the Osservanza, 15th century

St. Jerome ends the story with an authenticating claim that, during the reign of Constantine:

“A living man of this kind was brought back to Alexandria and shown as a great spectacle to the people; afterwards, its lifeless body, to prevent its dissolution in the summer’s heat, was salted, and carried back to Antioch to be seen by the Emperor.” (St. Jerome, The Life of St. Paul, The First Hermit).

St. Anthony with the centaur.
St. Anthony with the centaur.

“Centaurs are fabulous animals that are part man and part horse. Some say that this idea came from the horsemen of the Thessalians, because in battle on horseback they appear to be one body, horse and man.” (Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book 11, 3:37)

“I am a mortal being and one of those inhabitants of the desert whom the Gentiles deluded by various forms of error worship under the names of Fauns, Satyrs, and Incubi. I am sent to represent my tribe. We pray you in our behalf to entreat the favour of your Lord and ours, who, we have learned, came once to save the world, and 'whose sound has gone forth into all the earth.'”
St. Anthony with the Satyr.

Cerastes: The cerastes is a snake with horns like a ram’s on its head; from this it gets its name, for the Greeks call horns kerata. It has four horns, which it displays as bait, and instantly kills the animals it attracts. It covers itself with sand, leaving exposed only the part with which it catches allured birds and animals. It is so flexible that it seems to have no spine. (Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book 12, 4:18)

The cerastes, a very flexible snake with horns.
The cerastes, a very flexible snake with horns.

Corocotta: The Leukrokottas (or Leucrocotta, Corocotta) was a fantastic creature with the body of a stag, a lion’s neck, cloven hooves, and a wide mouth with a sharp, bony ridge in place of teeth. It had the ability to imitate the voices of men to lure prey. The creature was probably derived from travellers’ accounts of a type of hyena.

Leucrocota, Aberdeen Bestiary manuscript  c. 1200, Aberdeen University Library
Leucrocota, Aberdeen Bestiary manuscript
c. 1200, Aberdeen University Library

“In Aithiopia (Ethiopia) there is an animal called Krokottas (Crocotta), vulgarly Kynolykos (Cynolycus, Dog-Wolf), of amazing strength. It is said to imitate the human voice, to call men by name at night, and to devour those who approach it. It is as brave as a lion, as swift as a horse, and as strong as a bull. It cannot be overcome by any weapon of steel.” (Ctesias, Indica, summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 72)

Crocotta, as illustrated in a medieval bestiary
Crocotta, as illustrated in a medieval bestiary

Dragon: The dragon is the largest serpent, and in fact the largest animal on earth. Its name in Latin is draco, derived from the Greek name drakon. When it comes out of its cave, it disturbs the air. It has a crest, a small mouth, and a narrow throat. Its strength is in its tail rather than its teeth; it does harm by beating, not by biting. It has no poison and needs none to kill, because it kills by entangling. Not even the elephant is safe from the dragon; hiding where elephants travel, the dragon tangles their feet with its tail and kills the elephant by suffocating it. Dragons live in the burning heat of India and Ethiopia. (Book 16, 14:7): Dracontites is a stone that is forcibly taken from the brain of a dragon, and unless it is torn from the living creature it has not the quality of a gem; whence magi cut it out of dragons while they are sleeping. For bold men explore the cave of the dragons, and scatter there medicated grains to hasten their sleep, and thus cut off their heads while they are sunk in sleep, and take out the gems. (Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book 12, 4:4-5)

There is considerable variation in the illustration of dragons, but they usually have two or four feet, long tails, and at least one pair of wings. Fire-breathing dragons are rarely depicted; the dragon in British Library, Harley MS 3244 appears to be breathing fire. The most common scenes show the dragon attacking an elephant or threating the female elephant giving birth; the dragon held at bay by the peridexion tree; and the dragon trying to hide from the panther.
Fire-breathing dragons are rarely depicted; the dragon in British Library, Harley MS 3244 appears to be breathing fire.

Griffin: The griffin is a winged, four-footed animal. It has the body of a lion, but the wings and head of an eagle. It is born in the Hyperborean mountains, or perhaps in Ethiopia; some say it lives in the Indian desert, which it leaves only to find food. Griffins are the enemy of the horse. A griffin will tear a man to pieces or carry him to its nest to feed its young. Griffins are strong enough to carry away an entire live ox. They are also known for digging gold from mines.

The griffin, a powerful hunter, has caught a sheep.
The griffin, a powerful hunter, has caught a sheep.

The griffin is both a feathered animal and a quadruped; its body is like that of a lion, but it has wings and the face of an eagle. Griffins are hostile to horses and attack any man they see.” (Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book 12, 2:17)

A griffin rampant, in heraldic style.
A griffin rampant, in heraldic style.

“There is also gold [in India], not found in rivers and washed, as in the river Paktolos, but in many large mountains which are inhabited by Grypes (Griffins). These are four-footed birds as large as a wolf, their legs and claws resembling those of a lion; their breast feathers are red, those of the rest of the body black. Although there is abundance of gold in the mountains, it is difficult to get it because of these birds.” Ctesias, Indica, summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 72)

A knight attacks a griffin, which has killed his horse.
A knight attacks a griffin, which has killed his horse.

The Hippoi Monokerata: The Hippoi Monokerata were the swift-footed unicorns of the East. They were magnificent snow-white equines with a single, brightly-coloured horn rising from the middle of their foreheads. The Greeks also referred to them as Onoi Monokerata (One Horned Asses). The fabulous unicorn of Medieval bestiaries was derived from this creature of Greek legend.

“The unicorn received one horn from nature” (Ps. 91:10 LXX). “The unicorn is the beast which is invincible on account of the sharp horn upon his forehead, by which he kills all other beasts” (Ps. 77:69 LXX). (St. Athanasius the Great, Commentary on the Psalms)

A monocerus, a fierce beast with a long horn, often confused with the unicorn.
A monocerus, a fierce beast with a long horn, often confused with the unicorn.

“In India there are wild asses [the Monokerata, Unicorns] as large as horses, or even larger. Their body is white, their head dark red, their eyes bluish, and they have a horn in their forehead about a cubit in length. The lower part of the horn, for about two palms distance from the forehead, is quite white, the middle is black, the upper part, which terminates in a point, is a very flaming red. Those who drink out of cups made from it are proof against convulsions, epilepsy, and even poison, provided that before or after having taken it they drink some wine or water or other liquid out of these cups. The domestic and wild asses of other countries and all other solid-hoofed animals have neither huckle-bones nor gall-bladder, whereas the Indian asses have both. Their huckle-bone is the most beautiful that I have seen, like that of the ox in size and appearance; it is as heavy as lead and of the colour of cinnabar all through. These animals are very strong and swift; neither the horse nor any other animal can overtake them. At first they run slowly, but the longer they run their pace increases wonderfully, and becomes faster and faster. There is only one way of catching them. When they take their young to feed, if they are surrounded by a large number of horsemen, being unwilling to abandon their foals, they show fight, butt with their horns, kick, bite, and kill many men and horses. They are at last taken, after they have been pierced with arrows and spears; for it is impossible to capture them alive. Their flesh is too bitter to eat, and they are only hunted for the sake of the horns and huckle-bones.” (Ctesias, Indica, summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 72)

A monocerus with a very long, curved horn and cloven hooves, drawn much as described in the text.
A monocerus with a very long, curved horn and cloven hooves, drawn much as described in the text.

Indus Worm: The Indus Worm from Medieval bestiaries was a giant, white, carnivorous worm that lived in the Indus River.

“In the river Indos (Indus) a worm is found resembling those which are usually found on fig-trees. Its average length is seven cubits, though some are longer, others shorter. It is so thick that a child ten years old could hardly put his arms round it. It has two teeth, one in the upper and one in the lower jaw. Everything it seizes with these teeth it devours. By day it remains in the mud of the river, but at night it comes out, seizes whatever it comes across, whether ox or camel, drags it into the river, and devours it all except the intestines. It is caught with a large hook baited with a lamb or kid attached by iron chains. After it has been caught, it is hung up for thirty days with vessels placed underneath, into which as much oil from the body drips as would fill ten Attic kotylai. At the end of the thirty days, the worm is thrown away, the vessels of oil are sealed arid taken as a present to the king of India, who alone is allowed to use it. This oil sets everything alight–wood or animals–over which it is poured, and the flame can only be extinguished by throwing a quantity of thick mud on it.” (Ctesias, Indica, summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 72)

“In regard to the river Indos, he [Ctesias] says that, where it is narrowest, it is forty, where it is widest, two hundred stades broad . . . He also mentions a worm found in this river, the only living creature which breeds there. Beyond India there are no countries inhabited by men. It never rains there, the country being watered by the river.” (Ctesias, Indica, as summarized in Photius, Myriobiblon 72)

Manticore: The Mantikhoras (or Manticore) was a fabulous man-eating Persian monster with the body of a lion, the face of a man, and a spike-tipped arrow-shooting tail. The name “Manticore” was reputedly derived from a Persian word meaning “man-eater.”  The Manticore also appeared in Medieval bestiaries, derived from the Greek and Roman writers.

A manticore with a somewhat human face, a lion's body, and a scorpion's tail.
A manticore with a somewhat human face, a lion’s body, and a scorpion’s tail.

“He [Apollonios of Tyana] also asked them [the Brahmans of India] . . . if they had among them a four-footed animal called a Martikhoras (Manticore), which had a head like that of a man, but rivals a lion in size, while from its tail projects hairs like thorns a cubit long, which it is accustomed to shoot out like arrows at those who hunt it . . . [and] Iarkhas said that they never had existed at all.” (Eusebius, Treatise Against Hierocles 21)

A manticore: lion body, human face.
A manticore: lion body, human face.

“The Martikhora (Manticore) is an animal found in this country [India]. It has a face like a man’s, a skin red as cinnabar, and is as large as a lion. It has three rows of teeth, ears and light-blue eyes like those of a man; its tail is like that of a land scorpion, containing a sting more than a cubit long at the end. It has other stings on each side of its tail and one on the top of its head, like the scorpion, with which it inflicts a wound that is always fatal. If it is attacked from a distance, it sets up its tail in front and discharges its stings as if from a bow; if attacked from behind, it straightens it out and launches its stings in a direct line to the distance of a hundred feet. The wound inflicted is fatal to all animals except the elephant. The stings are about a foot long and about as thick as a small rush. The Martikhora [a Persian word meaning man-eater] is called in Greek Anthropophagos (Man-Eater), because, although it preys upon other animals, it kills and devours a greater number of human beings. It fights with both its claws and stings, which, according to Ktesias (Ctesias), grow again after they have been discharged. There is a great number of these animals in India, which are hunted and killed with spears or arrows by natives mounted on elephants.” (Ctesias, Indica, summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 72)

An orange manticore grins with nasty teeth.
An orange manticore grins with nasty teeth.

Pard: The pard, a beast of many colors, is very swift, likes blood, and kills with a leap. The adulterous mating of the pard with a lion (leo) produces degenerate offspring, the leopard. (Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book 12, 2:10-11)

A male and female pard attacking a sheep.
A male and female pard attacking a sheep.

Phoenix: There are two similar versions of the account of the phoenix. In the first, it is a bird that lives in India. When it reaches the age of five hundred years, it flies to a frankincense tree and fills its wings with spices. In early spring a priest at Heliopolis covers an altar with twigs. The phoenix comes to the city, sees the altar, lights a fire there and is consumed by it. The next day a small, sweet-smelling worm is found in the ashes. On the second day the worm has transformed into a small bird, and on the third has the form of the phoenix again. The bird then returns to its place of origin.

After 500 years of life, the phoenix burns itself and rises renewed from the ashes.
After 500 years of life, the phoenix burns itself and rises renewed from the ashes.

The second version says that the phoenix is a purple or red bird that lives in Arabia. There is only one living phoenix in the world at any time. When it is old, it builds a pyre of wood and spices and climbs on to it. There it faces the sun and the fire ignites; it fans the fire with its wings until it is completely consumed. Some say it is the sun that ignites the fire; others say that the phoenix starts it by striking its beak against a stone, or that stones gathered with spices in the pyre rub together to create a spark. A new phoenix rises from the ash of the old.

Other versions of the story combine parts of the above accounts. The tale of the phoenix is very old and was widely known throughout antiquity, with many variations.

The phoenix on its funeral pyre, which was lit by the rays of the sun above.
The phoenix on its funeral pyre, which was lit by the rays of the sun above.

“The phoenix is a bird of Arabia, which gets its name from its purple (phoeniceus) color; or because it is singular and unique in the world and the Arabs call singular and unique phoenix. It lives for 500 years or more. When it sees that it has grown old it builds a pyre for itself from spices and twigs, and facing the rays of the rising sun ignites a fire and fans it with its wings, and rises again from its own ashes.” (Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book 12, 7:22)

A medieval depiction of the Devil
A medieval depiction of the Devil

Epistle on Dragons (St. John Damascene)

NOTE:  The main purpose of St. John Damascene is to persuade his readers that dragons are real living creatures and not mythical personages like ghosts, werewolves and so on. To confirm this idea, St. John describes their birth, development, size, behavior, and refers to the catching of a dragon and the measuring of his hide.


Some people contrive that dragons can both take the human form and turn into serpents, sometimes small, sometimes huge, differing in body length and size, and sometimes, as was already stated above, having turned into people, start to associate with them, appear to steal women and consort with them; so we would ask [those who tell such stories]: how many intelligent natures did God create? And if they do not know the answer, we will respond: two – I mean angels and humans… So He created the two intelligent natures; but if a dragon changes its form while associating with people, becoming at one moment a serpent, at another a man… so it follows with all possible clarity that dragons are intelligent beings exceeding men greatly, which has not [ever] been true, and never will be.

Let them also say who in particular tells about it. For we trust the teaching of Moses, and, more exactly, the Holy Spirit, having spoken through [the prophet]. This [teaching] reads: And God brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them; and whatsoever [Adam] called every living creature, that was the name thereof (cf. Gen. 2:19). Hence, a dragon was one of the animals. I am not telling you, after all, that there are no dragons; dragons exist but they are serpents borne of other serpents. Being just born and young, they are small; but when they grow up and get mature, they become big and fat so that exceed the other serpents in length and size. It is said they grow up more than thirty cubits; as for their thickness, they get as thick as a big log. Dio the Roman (A.D. 155 – 236) who wrote the history of Roman empire and republic, reports the following: one day, when Regulus, a Roman consul, was fighting against Carthage, a dragon suddenly crept up and settled behind the wall of the Roman army. The Romans killed it by order of Regulus, excoriated it and sent the hide to the Roman senate. When the dragon’s hide, as Dio says, was measured up by order of the senate, it happened to be, amazing, one hundred and twenty feet long, and the thickness was fitting to the length.”


There is one more kind of dragon; those have wide head, goldish eyes and horny protuberances on the back of the head. They also have a beard [protruding] out of the throat; this kind of dragons is called “agaphodemons” and it is said they have no faces. This dragon is a sort of beasts, like the rest of the animals, for it has a beard, like a goat, and horn at the back of its head. Its eyes are big and goldish. These dragons can be both big and small. All serpent kinds are poisonous, except dragons, for they do not emit poison.

The tale is also told that dragons can be driven away by thunder; as if a dragon goes up and gets killed. When I heard this I laughed! Is it possible to see a dragon now a human-like and intelligent creature, now a serpent; now a rebel against God, now a being pursued by Him? Ignorance is truly an unreliable thing.

We harm ourselves most of all when we ignore reading of the Holy Scriptures and studying them according to the Word of our Lord.



Holy Scriptures, Church Fathers and Mythological Creatures

St. John Damascene is not the only Church Father to write about dragons (or other mythological creatures).


In his Commentary on Job, St. Ephraim the Syrian writes, “The Behemoth is a dragon, that is, a land animal, just as the Leviathan is an aquatic sea animal.”

St. John Chrysostom writes in his Commentary on Job, “If God has created these two enormous beasts, He did so in order that you might know that He may create all of them according to their own type. But God does not do so because creation is oriented to provide what is useful to you. Notice how these beasts preserve their proper laws: they haunt that part of the sea which is not navigable. But one may ask, ‘What is their use?’ We ignore what is the mysterious utility of these monsters, but, if we went to take the risk of an explanation, we may say that they lead toward the knowledge of God.”

An early 15th-century icon of St Theodore.
An early 15th-century icon of St Theodore.

Incidentally, the existence of dragons, or at least the early Orthodox Christian belief in the existence of dragons, is validated by the Synaxarion accounts of Apostle Philip (May 3rd), St. Marina of Antioch (July 20th), St. Samson of Dol (July 28th), St. Martha of Bethany (July 28th), St. George the Great Martyr (April 23rd), St. Theodore the Great Martyr (Feb. 17th) and dozens of other saints.

During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904, while St. Barsanuphius of Optina was stationed as a priest for the military hospitals in Manchuria, he wrote the following in his cell notes: “…I will note, incidentally, that I also happened to hear from soldiers that stand post at the Hantaza Station, 40 miles from Mullin, that two years ago they often saw an enormous winged dragon creep out of one of the mountainous caves. They have not seen it since that time, but this proves that the tales of the Chinese and Japanese about the existence of dragons are not at all fantasies or fables, although the learned European naturalists, and ours along with them, deny the existence of these monsters. But after all, anything can be denied, simply because it does not measure up to our understanding…” (pp. 232-33). [Note: Essentially, the hearsay of some soldiers was enough to validate the existence of dragons for St. Barsanuphius].

St. Marina of Antioch (4th c.) is swallowed and exploded from the dragon's belly at the same time
St. Marina of Antioch (4th c.) is swallowed and exploded from the dragon’s belly at the same time


The unicorn (Hebrew reem; Greek monokeros) is mentioned nine times in the Old Testament. St. Athanasios the Great gives a description of unicorns in his Commentary on the Psalms:

“The unicorn received one horn from nature” (Ps. 91:10 LXX). “The unicorn is the beast which is invincible on account of the sharp horn upon his forehead, by which he kills all other beasts” (Ps. 77:69 LXX).

The Lady & the Unicorn (15th c.) Museum of Cluny
The Lady & the Unicorn (15th c.) Museum of Cluny


The “satyr” is also mentioned in the Old Testament. In Greek and Roman mythology, the satyr (or “faun”) was said to be a half-man/half-goat creature. This is also how it appears in the Hagiographical account of St. Anthony the Great which was written by St. Athanasios the Great.

Agiou Antonios Agiou Antonios

The above icons show St. Anthony the Great with the Satyr (l) and with the centaur (r). This fresco is in the katholikon of St. Demetrios Skete, Mt. Athos.


The “cockatrice” (Hebrew tsepha; Greek basiliskos) is mentioned five times in the Old Testament. In English mythology, the cockatrice is a snake hatched from a cock’s egg.

A cockatrice overdoor at Belvedere Castle (1869) in New York's Central Park.
A cockatrice overdoor at Belvedere Castle (1869) in New York’s Central Park.