Entertainment in General is Unchristian (St. Nikodemos the Hagiorite)

NOTE: In the monasteries, pilgrims are generally encouraged not to watch television and secular movies, play video games—or most games in general—not to go to clubs, parties, dances, etc. Many pilgrims have obediences that limit their Internet time to a ½ hour per day. Geronda Ephraim has said in homilies that those who live a spiritual orthodox life—frequent confession, frequent communion if no penance, obedience to a spiritual father, etc.—cannot be affected by the subliminal messages found in television, advertising, etc. It should be noted that there are some secular media that is permitted and blessed by the monasteries, like the movies Ostrov (Island), Mel Gibson’s The Passion. Those movies are even blessed to be on the monastics’ iPods as well as Athonite documentaries. Geronda Ephraim went to see The Passion when it came out in theaters with one of his Gerondissa’s and said afterwards, “Out of all the movies I’ve seen on the Life of Christ, this one is the most realistic and the closest thing to what really happened.” Many monastics watch The Passion especially during Holy Week to help them get more into the mindset of Christ’s suffering. The following article is excerpted from The Rudder:

The Passion is one of the few movies Geronda Ephraim has blessed his monastics to watch. Many monastics have the movie on their iPods.
The Passion is one of the few movies Geronda Ephraim has blessed his monastics to watch. Many monastics have the movie on their iPods.

CANON XXIV (24) OF THE 6TH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL

Let none of those enrolled in the clerical list, nor any Monks attend horse races or become involved in pastimes. But if any Clergyman should he invited at a wedding, whenever fraudulent games are introduced, let him rise up and protest, and thereupon let him depart, since the teaching of our Fathers thus commands. In case anyone is caught and found guilty of this, let him either cease or be deposed. (Apostolic Canons XLII, XLIII; Canons LI, LXII, LXVI of the 6th Ecumenical Synod; Canon XXII of the 7th Ecumenical Synod; Canons III, LIV of Laodicea; Canons XVII, LXX of Carthage.)

INTERPRETATION

No one in Holy Orders, nor any monk, according to the present Canon, is permitted to go to those places where men race horses, or to look at and listen to effeminate games. If, on the other hand, any clergyman be invited to a wedding, he may go, but when it comes to playing such deceptive and Satanic games, he must get up at once and depart, just as the Fathers’ teaching commands, that is to say, Canon LIV of the Synod held in Laodicea (though that Canon adds that those in Holy Orders must not look at other spectacles either that mark weddings and suppers, and that they must depart before the time has even come for the games). As for anyone caught doing this, either he must cease or he must be deposed.31

  1. ENTERTAINMENT IN GENERAL IS UNCHRISTIAN

Although Balsamon in his interpretation of the present Canon does say that such theatrical shows and such games are prohibited only on Lord’s Days and the great holidays, but not on the other days, inferring this from that which Canon LXX of Carthage says to the effect that these shows must be transferred to other days, we say, principally and primarily, that Canon LI of this Ecumenical Synod prohibits their being held, not on some days and on other days not so, but not at all on any days whatsoever. Consequently, and because the same Synod of Cartilage in its Canon XVII says that it is ever and always preached to all Christians not to go near any place where there are blasphemies and other improprieties that attend or mark such theatrical shows. Moreover, we say what St. Basil the Great says (see in xtensor XX). No blamed thing in itself can ever become good on account of the season in which it is done. “None of the things that have been condemned is suited to us for the time being.” But since these spectacles and theatrical shows have been blamed, they are not to be praised and are not good even when held on non-festival days. For these things are really demonic works.

St. Chrysostom, too, says (Hom. 12 on the First Epistle to the Corinthians, page 318 of Volume II): “And talk not to me of custom. For if a thing is wicked, let it not be done even once; but if it is good, let it be done again and again.” Or, in other words, if the thing is an evil, let it not occur even once; but if it is not, let it occur at all times. The same Chrysostom calls theaters and circuses and horse races pomp of Satan (Discourse 20 on statues, page (610 of Volume VI). And again the: same saint says: “Frequenting theaters has given birth to fornication, licentiousness, and lewdness of every sort. And watching horse races, prize fights, burlesque shows, and boxing, and exhibitions of insolence, and the exchange of insults have engendered constant aversions” (Discourse 15 on statues, page 564 of volume VI). See also the discourse that he prepared specially to show how improper it is for anyone to go near theaters, since these make men perfect adulterers (page 89, of Volume V).

St. Genesius the Actor of Rome (August 25)
St. Genesius the Actor of Rome (August 25)

CANON LI OF THE 6TH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL

The holy and ecumenical Synod universally prohibits so-called pantomimes and their theatrical exhibitions; afterwards, in keeping with this, also the spectacles of wild-animal fury and of hunters’ prowess, and the execution of dances on the stage. If anyone flouts the present Canon, and gives himself over to any of the things herein prohibited, in case he is a clergyman, let him be deposed, but if he is a layman, let him be excommunicated. (Canons XXIV, LXII, LXVI of the 6th Ecumenical Synod;

Canons XVII, LXX of Carthage.)

INTERPRETATION

With a vengeance the present Canon prohibits the doings of so-called pantomimes, some of which were Arabs mimicking gestures, while others were Armenians, at other times slaves, sometimes even slapping each other’s face, and moving the speculators to uncontrollable laughter. What is here called “spectacles of wild-animal fury and of hunters’ prowess” as translated into English (though but two words in Greek, meaning, approximately, “hunting scenes”– translated as above so as to bring out the implications more clearly) are the spectacles55 beheld when one sees wild beasts, such as lions or bears, or other savage animals, fighting, either among themselves, or with human beings who have been condemned to death. For it is a piece of great inhumanity and barbarity to look at such bloodshed and laugh at it.

The Canon also forbids, in addition to these spectacles, dances and indecent wriggles performed whether by men or by women on the stage. The stage was a tent within which they used to engage in all kinds of theatrical presentations and pretenses, or where someone would stand up and display examples of skillful acting, according to Title XIII of Photios, Chapter 21, and hence they are called actors who at times pretend that they are masters or lords, and at other times that they are slaves or servants: As for anyone that flouts the present Canon and gives himself to watching such displays, if he be a clergyman, let him be deposed, but if he be a layman, let him be excommunicated. Read also Canon XXIV of the same 6th Ecumenical Synod.

St Avdalion the Mime
St Avdalion the Mime

CANON XVII (17) OF CARTHAGE

Care should be taken to see that the children of Priests shall not give any mundane spectacles, nor witness any. This, in fact, has ever been preached to all Christians, to the effect that wherever there are blasphemies they ought not to approach. (Apostolic Canons XLII, XLIII; Canons XXIV, LI, LXII, LXVI of the 6th Ecumenical Synod; Canons XIII, LIV of Laodicea; Canonof Carthage.)

INTERPRETATION

The present Canon commands that children of priests refrain from giving the exhibitions and plays that are staged in theaters and with horse races and bullfights and other contests with wild beasts and animals, when they themselves, that is to say, have control over the horses and other animals; but neither must they stand or sit and look at such spectacles when they are given by other persons.18

Not only children of those in Holy Orders, however, but all Christians in common are and always have been taught not to go near theaters and motion picture shows and the like, where many indecent things occur by means whereof the faith of Christians is blasphemed and insulted by infidels and disbelievers and other impious persons. See also CanonV of the 6th Ecumenical Synod, as well as Apostolic Canon XLII.

St. Gelasios the Mime.
St. Gelasios the Mime.
  1. PRIEST’S MUST KEEP CHILDREN DECENT, MODEST – UNLIKE WORLDLY CHILDREN

That is why the Apostle wrote to Timothy (I Timothy 3:4) that priests must keep their children in subjection with all care for decency. And to Titus (Titus 1:6) that they themselves must have children who are faithful and obedient, free from any accusation of licentiousness, dissoluteness, prodigality, and dissipation, and not prone to insubordination. But when children of priests go to theaters and motion picture shows and witness the indecent and disorderly sights to be seen there, it is evident that they are liable to be accused of being licentious and dissolute, prodigal or insubordinate, as well as indecent or immodest, which is a thing forbidden by the divine Apostle. For the children of priests ought to be more deceit and modest than the children of worldly persons. That is why St. Chrysostom (page 50 of Vol. VI) says that if the daughter of a priest sins, she is punished more than other women. “For the daughters of priests, though not subject to any obligation because of being in Holy Orders themselves, yet by reason of their father’s office and dignity, have to suffer a much more bitter punishment,” he says. (Discourse 6 on Holy Orders). God too says: “If the daughter of a man who is a priest profane herself by turning into the ways of fornication so as to become a whore, she herself is profaning the name of her father, and she shall be burned at the stake” (Leviticus 21:9). In the twenty-second chapter of Deuteronomy, verse 21, He commands “the daughter of a layman shall be stoned if she becomes a whore.” But being burned to death is a greater punishment than being stoned to death.

St. John of Kronstadt Disapproved of the Theater

Excerpted from My Life in Christ:

  • The theatre lulls the Christian life to sleep, destroys it, communicating to the life of Christians the character of the life of heathens.  “They all slumbered and slept”; this disastrous sleep is produced, amongst other things, also by the theatre.  And what besides?  The sciences, taught in the spirit of heathenism, worldly cares carried to excess, love of gain, ambition and sensuality.  The theatre is the school of this world, and of the Prince of this world – that is, the Devil, but sometimes he is transformed into an angel of light in order to more easily tempt people who are not far-seeing, he sometimes introduces an apparently moral play on to the stage, but this is done in order that everybody should proclaim and repeat that the theatre is a most moral institution…
  • The theatre likewise extinguishes faith and the Christian life, teaching distraction, cunning (or knowledge of the world), a fondness for laughter and joking; it trains clever children of this world, but not children of light.  The theatre is the opponent of the Christian life; it is the offspring of the spirit of this world, and not of the Spirit of God.  True children of the Church do not visit it.
  • This present life is not a jest nor a plaything, although men have turned it into a jest and a plaything.  They heedlessly play with time, given for preparation for eternity; they play with idle words.  They assemble at their friends’, sit and talk idly, and then begin to play at something.  They go to theatres, and there both the performers and the spectators only amuse themselves.
  • What do theatres bring into the hearts of men?  The spirit of this world, the spirit of idleness, of idle speaking, of joking, of cunning, and wickedness, of pride, presumption – they do not bring any moral good to anyone.  The authors of the pieces and the actors only give people what they have in themselves, their own spirit, neither more nor less.
  • No; say what you like, theatres are an ungodly institution.  Only penetrate into their spirit and you will agree that they are schools of incredulity, mockery, of the insolent ridicule of everything, and that they are depravity.  Woe unto that society in which there are many theatres, and which loves to frequent them!   Occasionally, it is true, the theatre is the lesser evil for those who love evil.
  • The theatre and the church – are opposite contrasts.  The one is the temple of the world, and the other the temple of God; the one is the temple of the Devil, and the other – the temple of the Lord.
St. Porphyrios the Mime
St. Porphyrios the Mime

http://www.ccel.org/ccel/kronstadt/christlife.pdf

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Concerning the Fact That Christians Should in General Not Play Instruments, Dance, or Sing (St. Nikodemos the Hagiorite)

In Christian Morality, there are two discourses which intensely focus on dance – “Discourse II:  Concerning the Fact That Christians Should in General Not Play Instruments, Dance, or Sing” and “Discourse III:  Concerning the Fact That Christians Should Not Play Instruments, Dance, or Sing at Weddings.”

nikodemos the hagiorite christian morality

In Discourse II, St Nikodemos the Hagiorite begins with Isaiah 5:11-14.  Dance is not isolated but placed in the following context:

 

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Behold what piteous cries the Almighty utters in deploring all who play instruments, all who dance, all who sing.  Woe, He says, and alas for those who rise from sleep in the morning to run to drink raki.  Woe to those who linger in taverns until the evening, for wine and raki will inflame them.  These people drink wine to the accompaniment of harps, zithers, drums, and flutes, but have no desire to pay heed to the commandments of the Lord; nor do they wish to give any thought to the works of God.  For this reason ‘My people will be enslaved, and many of them will die from hunger and thirst; for they neither know nor fear the Lord, and Hades has opened its mouth wide to receive them.’ {p 35}

Tupan, Tapan, Davul, Daouli is the two headed drum. The daouli player usually hangs the drum from a belt or strap over his left shoulder.
Tupan, Tapan, Davul, Daouli is the two headed drum. The daouli player usually hangs the drum from a belt or strap over his left shoulder.

The translators (Hieromonk Patapios, Monk Chrysostomos and Archbishop Chrysostomos of Etna) included the following explanatory footnote:

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… it is important to note that in all of the passages that he cites from St. John Chrysostomos and other Church Fathers, it is not music as such that it is so harshly censured, and certainly not what would today be considered “classical” or “serious” music, but rather a more popular or vulgar kind of instrumental music that was typically played by persons of rather loose morals in socio-cultural contexts characterized by egregious improbity.  Such “vehemence against instrumental musicians is primarily explained by the association of musical instruments with sexual license, luxurious banquets, and the immorality of the theater” (The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Vol II, s.v. “Musicians”). {p 36}

Saint Cecilia is the patroness of musicians. It is written that as the musicians played at her wedding she "sang in her heart to the Lord".
Saint Cecilia is the patroness of musicians. It is written that as the musicians played at her wedding she “sang in her heart to the Lord”.

St Nikodemus outlines the “evils” caused by musical instruments and dances – idolatry (Exodus 32), perjury and cursing (Judges 20:47; 21:18, 20-21), bloodshed and murders (Matthew 14).  He further points out:

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And what other evil, my beloved, is not caused by dances, instruments, and songs?  By these are engendered adornment and beautification of the body, for those who go to the dance and sing, be they men or women, first adorn and bedeck the body with bright clothing and jewelry and then go forth.  By these are engendered the application of musk oils and other perfumes; by these are engendered disorderly and indecent sights of the eyes; by these are occasioned whorish sounds in the ears; by these are engendered shameful talk, jesting, and unseemly laughter, postures, and movements; by these are engendered carnal lusts and fornications and adulteries that arise in the heart (cf. Matthew 5:28). {p 38-39}

Opposite from the Magi sits a young shepherd boy plays music for his flock (Nativity icon detail).
Opposite from the Magi sits a young shepherd boy plays music for his flock (Nativity icon detail).

St Nikodemos goes even further in raising the bar (before beginning Discourse III regarding weddings):

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Now, what do some people say?  “All right, on other days one should not play instruments, dance, or sing.  But when there is a feast and a celebration, when Pascha comes and the days of Bright Week? What about Meatfare?  How, at those times, are we to display our joy? …”  But listen … feasts and celebrations of Saints are held for no other purpose than for Christians to assemble thereon, to hear the exploits of the Saints being celebrated, and as far as possible, to emulate the Saints themselves, and thereby receive piety in their souls, and in their lives amendment and rectitude. …

Likewise, Pascha and Bright Week are celebrated in order that Christians might be reminded that the Son of God, by His Passion, Cross, death and Holy Resurrection, redeemed them from the hands of the Devil, delivered them from Hades, freed them from death, and granted them resurrection and the Heavenly Kingdom; and that for all of these benefactions and favors they might thus be thankful to Christ, Who suffered, was crucified, died, and rose out of love for them. {p. 43-45}

An ancient Greek lyre.
An ancient Greek lyre.

Recalling the words of the Prophet Amos, St Nikodemos warns Christians:

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…so you, by your instruments, dances, songs, carousals, brawls, and fights, and the other evils that you commit on Feast Days and Pascha, compel God to cry out that He loathes and no longer desires such celebrations and that He abhors such feasts [Amos 5:21].

If God, on account of the sins of the Hebrews, hated and no longer wished to listen to the Divine songs that they chanted and the sacred instruments that they played in His Temple, and in spite of the fact that they chanted those songs and played those instruments to the glory, honor, and majesty of His Holy Name on Feast Days – for He says:  “Remove from me the sound of thy songs, and I will not hear the music of thine instruments” (Amos 5:23) – if, I say, He loathed those things, how much more, and incomparably more, does He loathe and abhor the diabolical instruments that you Christians play on Feasts, not to the glory of God, but to the glory, honor, and pomp of Satan? {p 47-48}

 russian-bellringers

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My Christian brothers and sisters, do you wish truly to rejoice and be glad on Feast Days, on Pascha, and in the pre-Lenten periods?  Do not play instruments; do not dance; do not sing songs.  No, rather chant some Troparion or hymn that you know, to Christ or the Panagia.  Chant “Christ is risen”; chant “The Angel cried” or “It is truly meet.”  Thus does the Apostle James enjoin Christians to do, saying:  “Is any merry? let him sing psalms (James 5:13).”  That is, whoever has joy and a happy heart, let him sing a psalm, not a song.  If you act in this way, God blesses your table; if you act in this way, the Angels of God stand beside you and guard you.  If you act in this way, your eating and drinking, your observances of Feasts and pre-Lenten periods, are all done to the glory of God, as befits Christians and as the Divine Paul enjoins, saying:  “Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God” (1 Cor 10:31).

Regarding Discourse III:  “Concerning the Fact That Christians Should Not Play Instruments, Dance, or Sing at Weddings,” St Nikodemos begins based on the words of St Paul (cf. Hebrews 13:4).  St Nikodemos writes:

 

Fr. Taxiarches (TX) hitting the Talanton with a Athonite rhythm.
Fr. Taxiarches (TX) hitting the Talanton with a Athonite rhythm.

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[St Paul] also taught us that Christian weddings should not be characterized by any disorderliness or impropriety, but should be dignified, orderly, and honorable, and not honorable in a general sense, but in every way. …Let marriage be honorable in all, not just at one time, but at all times:  before the couple are blessed, when they are being blessed, and after they have been blessed.  Let marriage be honorable in all, not in only one way, nor in only one place, but in all ways and places:  in food, in drink, in clothing, in Church, in the home, at the table, and everywhere. [p 59]

And David and the children of Israel [were] playing before the Lord on well-tuned instruments mightily, and with songs, and with harps, and with lutes, and with drums, and with cymbals, and with pipes. (II Sam. 6:5)
And David and the children of Israel [were] playing before the Lord on well-tuned instruments mightily, and with songs, and with harps, and with lutes, and with drums, and with cymbals, and with pipes. (II Sam. 6:5)
St Nikodemos cites three reasons the Church calls marriage a “Mystery”:

  1. because of the unity in love of the souls of a man and a woman;
  2. because marriage is a type of the spiritual union of Christ with the Church…
  3. because marriage contains Divine Grace within it, as do the other Mysteries. [p 60]

and outlines how “instruments and dances are contrary to the properties that characterize the Mystery of marriage.” 

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Now, if it were perhaps good and lawful to play instruments, dance and sing at Matrimony, which is one of the seven mysteries, one must be permitted to play these, to dance, and to sing songs also at Baptisms, Chrismations, Ordinations, and the other mysteries. But because Christians play instruments, dance and sing neither when they are baptized, nor when they are chrismated, nor when they commune, nor when they receive priesthood, nor when they confess their sins, nor when thye are anointed with oil, therefore, when they are married, likewise, they must neither play instruments, dance, nor sing songs. For, if instruments were to be played and dances and songs were to take place at weddings, then it would be necessity follow either tht Matrimony is not a mystery like the other six or thqt playing instruments, dancing, and singing would have to take place also at the other six Mysteries, since all the Mysteries are alike. Therefore, it does not behoove Christians to play instruments, dance or sing songs at weddings. (p. 64-65)

 

Fr. Nektarios Moulatsiotis ("Free Monks" pop music band)
Fr. Nektarios Moulatsiotis (“Free Monks” pop music band)

After discussing the use of the crown in the “marriage” service, St Nikodemos states: 

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So now I ask you, my Christian brothers and sisters, to tell me the truth:  Is it right for a couple that is blessed and crowned in marriage… to arrange for music, dancing, and singing at their wedding?  Are they justified, who have heard such blessings, such holy words from the Priests who blessed them, in sullying their ears once more with unclean and indecent songs?  Is it right for them, after they have stood in the Holy Church of God and sanctified their feet, to defile them again with diabolical dancing?  In a word, is it right for them, having communed that same day of the Immaculate Mysteries, not to keep pure all of their bodily senses and all of the senses and powers of the soul, for the sake of the joy, the honor, and the sanctification that they have received?  Again, is it right for them to see the immodest sights of musical performances, dancing, and other improprieties, or to do anything immodest at all? [p 70]

Instead, St Nikodemos exhorts Christians to follow the guidance from the Sixth Ecumenical Synod in Laodicea which “enjoins them to lunch or dine on these occasions with decorum and propriety.”

In addition to Old Testament references, St Nikodemos expounds upon the raising of Jairus’ daughter to explain further the reasons behind the prohibition:

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Follow me, and let us go to Jerusalem.  Have you arrived?  It was here that a young girl died, and her father, who was called Jairus, came to Jesus, beseeching Him woefully to go to his house and resurrect her.  The most compassionate Jesus Christ, showing sympathy for his affliction and plight, went to the house.  However, He saw great commotion there and the flutist playing their flutes and pipes, not in order to bring joy, but to arouse grief by the dirges that they were playing; for the historian Josephus says that it was the custom at that time for the Hebrews to summon musicians to their dead in order to play dirges and thereby to move people to tears.  St John Chrysostomos says the same thing in his interpretation on the ninth chapter of the Gospel according to St Matthew [Homily XXXI].  When He saw them, the Lord did not wish to enter Jairus’ house; no.  He bade everyone to go outside.  After they had left, it was then that He entered the house and, taking the girl by the hand, immediately raised her up by the almighty power of His Divinity… [p 75]

"and when they raised their voice together with trumpets and cymbals, and instruments of music, and said, Give thanks to the Lord, for [it is] good, for his mercy [endures] for ever:-- then the house was filled with the cloud of the glory of the Lord" (II Chronicles 5:13)
“and when they raised their voice together with trumpets and cymbals, and instruments of music, and said, Give thanks to the Lord, for [it is] good, for his mercy [endures] for ever:– then the house was filled with the cloud of the glory of the Lord” (II Chronicles 5:13)
At this point let each person reflect on the difference between the flute-players and musicians at today’s weddings and those of olden times.  For the latter played in order to stir up laments, sights, and tears, which are not harmful to the soul, but actually beneficial.  Today’s musicians play at weddings in order to provoke joy, laughter, dancing, and singing, which are harmful and injurious to the soul.  Those of olden times, when they played their instruments made the house in which they were playing a house of mourning and grief.  When today’s musicians play, they make the house in which they play a house of inebriation and sin. … As Solomon says, “It is better to go to the house of mourning, than to go to the banquet house” [ Ecclesiastes 7:2].  All of this notwithstanding, our Lord did not enter even into the house in which those musicians were playing; it was, rather, after they departed that He entered … [p 76]

Praise him with the sound of a trumpet: praise him with psaltery and harp. Praise him with timbrel and dance: praise him with stringed instruments and the organ.  Praise him with melodious cymbals: praise him with loud cymbals. (Psalm 150: 3-5)
Praise him with the sound of a trumpet: praise him with psaltery and harp. Praise him with timbrel and dance: praise him with stringed instruments and the organ. Praise him with melodious cymbals: praise him with loud cymbals. (Psalm 150: 3-5)