The Group Psychological Abuse Scale

The Group Psychological Abuse (GPA) scale was developed from a factor analysis of 308 former cult members’ characterizations of their groups. Four subscales were derived: Compliance, Exploitation, Mind Control, and Anxious Dependency. Reliability and validity findings suggest the GPA should be useful in characterizing the varieties of abuse and in differentiating cults from innocuous groups.

GPA Scale and Geronda Ephraim’s Monasteries

This inventory is designed to evaluate certain aspects of religious, psycho-therapeutic, political, commercial, and other groups. Please rate, as best you can, the degree to which the following statements characterize the group under consideration. Rate each item according to your experience and observations (in retrospect) of how the group actually functioned. If your group had different levels of membership (within which the group’s dominant features differed), please apply the ratings to the level with which you have greatest familiarity. Circle the best answer, using the following ratings:

 1 = not at all characteristic

        2 = not characteristic

        3 = can’t say/not sure

        4 = characteristic

        5 = very characteristic

The correct numbers are in bold on the scale.

 1.[R] The group does not tell members how to conduct their sex lives.

  1        2        3        4        5

Not at all characteristic. The group, via the ecclesiastical canons of the Orthodox Church, dictate how members should conduct their sex lives. Only carnal unions between heterosexual couples who have been married in a canonical Orthodox Church are permitted. Carnal unions are not allowed on fast days or before Holy Communion. Carnal unions are limited to basic heterosexual intercourse; masturbation, oral sex, homosexual/lesbian sex, sex during menstruation cycles, pre-marital sex, etc. are forbidden and punishable by penance of no Communion for long periods of time. For the monastics, penances of no Communion are extended to accepting carnal fantasies (i.e. the stage after dialogue before the actual act). As well, spiritual children have to ask blessings for who they can or cannot date. Usually, the spiritual Father will want to meet this person first, but in some cases, after looking at a photograph, a spiritual child has been forbidden to date the individual.

2. Women are directed to use their bodies for the purpose of recruiting or of manipulation.

                1        2        3        4        5

Not at all characteristic. Sexual promiscuity is discouraged. Women at the monasteries have to be well-covered from head to toe. The men also are forbidden to wear shorts and short-sleeved shirts, etc. Monastics live a celibate life and couples are expected to try and live like brother and sister after they stop having children so they can develop into more spiritual people (i.e. less carnal and worldly).

3. The group advocates or implies that breaking the law is okay if it serves the interests of the group.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. Though this would be more characteristic of white-collar crime and simple frauds, forgeries, etc., not so much in violence or burglaries. In some cases, individuals with warrants out for their arrest in Canada were kept hidden at St. Anthony’s Monastery in Arizona. A common justification for breaking the law if it’ll help an individual is from the life of St. Dionysios who hid his brother’s murderer from an angry mob, which in turn brought him to repentance and a Christian lifestyle. A common justification for the white collar crimes is that the laws in America are the laws of men and not God’s laws, thus irrelevant. Geronda Ephraim is a saint. the monasteries are God’s work, so it’s blessed to bend rules to further the advancement of his work.

4. Members are expected to postpone or give up their personal, vocational, and educational goals in order to work for the group.

                1        2        3        4        5

Characteristic. This really depends on the individual. When one joins a monastery, they give up, or rather renounce, everything of their former life (all debts are paid so as not to have anything tying them to the world, bank accounts are closed, jobs are quit, and any other plans are cancelled). Before joining a monastery, some monastics have been told to get their degree first and then come to the monastery. Others, have been told it’s not necessary. One former monastic who originally wanted to get a degree first was told, “You can choose the university of the world or the university of the desert, but you have to make your decision now. If you choose the world, you can’t become a monk.” Again, each case is different. The one common factor is that though the individual has “free will” and can choose to listen to or ignore the advice of the spiritual Father, the advice is in essence an obedience, the individual has usually cultivated the mindset that this advice is God’s will for him/her and not heeding (i.e. disobeying) this advice can lead to drastic consequences for the individual.

5.[R] The group encourages ill members to get medical assistance.

1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. Medical issues are taken seriously in the monasteries. A sick monastic tends to burden the monastery: it’s one less body available to work, and in some cases, it takes other monastics away from potential important work that needs to be done, if they’re tending to a sick monastic. Of course, if one is sick but lacks a fever, they can still work. If one is injured, then less labor intensive work is found for the individual. Overall, there really is no excuse for a monastic not to work. There is always some form of work that has to be done in the monastery. Unless a monastic is in excruciating pain or bed-ridden with valley fever or something of the sort, then they’re capable of work. And this is why medical issues are taken seriously, so things do not progress to the point where a monastic becomes an useless burden to the monastery.

6. Gaining political power is a major goal of the group.

                1        2        3        4        5

Can’t say/Not sure. Although gaining political power does not seem to be a goal of the monasteries–not to mention antithetical and anti-canonical for monastics–some of Geronda Ephraim’s spiritual children are getting involved in low-level politics across the country. As well, Geronda Ephraim as spiritual children in all levels of government, finance, law enforcement, etc. Interestingly, after Fr. Silouanos left St. Anthony’s Monastery (after 20+ years of being a monk) he immediately became a Loan Administrator at Flushing Savings Bank. After 3 years, he moved on to the I.R.S., where he has been a Tax Examining Technician for the last 5 years. In short, for the last 10 years, this man has had access to large amounts of sensitive personal information that could be very useful for the monasteries.

 7. Members believe that to leave the group would be death or eternal damnation for themselves or their families.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. Once a monastic is tonsured into the Rassaphore degree, they are taught that it is now for life. A Rassaphore is taught that if they leave the monastery, they will lose their soul. It will no longer be possible to find salvation. Interestingly, though this is the theological precepts for a Great Schema Monk/Nun–as they make vocal vows to God during the Liturgy before the Angels–there are no real concrete canons and teachings for the Rassaphore degree who, in essence, are still considered novices by the Church Fathers. The Rassaphore rank is a later innovation that wasn’t originally recognized or accepted by the early Church Fathers. Thus, many rassaphore monastics are misled, being given the burden of the Great Schema, without actually having put on the Great Schema.

 8. The group discourages members from displaying negative emotions.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. There are very high penances for monastics who display negative emotions (yelling, anger, back talk, jealousy, etc.), especially if this is done in front of lay people. The image of angelic perfection to lay people is expected. Amongst the monastics, there is expected to be love, respect, courteousness, tact, etc. The only monastics exempt from this are the superiors (and sometimes designated monastics who have a blessing to yell at and humble younger monastics “for their spiritual benefit”). Though, in some monasteries, there are monastics who refuse to talk to or look at one another, not to mention monastics who “play Geronda” and bully and humble the other monastics.

 9. Members feel they are part of a special elite.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. Geronda Ephraim teaches the monastics (via personal homilies, recorded homilies, and fax letters) that “we are the monks of the last days”. The monastics feel that they are part of a special elite as they believe that Geronda Ephraim is the holiest saint in the history of the Orthodox Church and now God has counted them worthy to be one of his monastics. Also, in his homilies,  Geronda Ephraim has related a vision in which it was revealed that those who stay under his obedience until the end (i.e. do not throw away their rassa and abandon the monastic life) will be saved.

10. The group teaches that persons who are critical of the group are in the power of evil, satanic forces.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. As the monasteries are taught to be God’s will and work, those who oppose them are considered under the influence of demonic energy. In 1998, Geronda Ephraim gave a brief homily to the monks about the new monasteries being built that year. He related a story about Gerondissa Markella traveling on an airplane. She and another nun encountered a Greek man who started questioning them about where Geronda Ephraim got all his money and he suggested criminality or demonic means. Gerondissa Markella reacted strongly, defending her Elder’s honor, and told the man he had to go to Geronda Ephraim, repent and ask his forgiveness. The old adage is true for the monasteries, “Those who are not with us are against us!”

11. The group uses coercive persuasion and mind control.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. This is such an integrated part of the monastic life. The levels and layers of manipulation run very deep as they have had a couple thousand years to perfect them. The teachings are expounded around the clock via readings during meals, personal readings (only monastic literature allowed), and services. Technically, the stance of a superior will be, “You’re not a prisoner, no one can force you to do something you don’t want” giving the illusion of free will, however, monastic teaching is every form of self-will is demonic, every protest has a danger of demon possession, disobedience is the death of the soul and leads to eternal damnation. Life within the monasteries is based on fear, guilt-tripping, psychological manipulation, ego-smashing, and bullying. Essentially, it is a struggle of wills and the monastic’s ego. The Elder has to orchestrate a radical form of therapy to humble the monastic and smash their ego. In modern terms, the Elder has to break the individual–this can result in a complete mental breakdown or a series of mini-breaks until the monastic has no more resistance and is totally pliable. The result is the Elder can now take this broken individual and rebuild–or rather remold–him/her into a “new man in Christ.”

12. The group approves of violence against outsiders (e.g., ?satanic communists,? etc.).

                1        2        3        4        5

Not characteristic. In essence, Orthodox monasticism is non-violent. In Geronda Ephraim’s monasteries, it is taught that on Mount Athos, the only time a monastic can resort to violence is if someone insults his Geronda (thus one can blaspheme Christ or the Panagia and not be physically harmed, but not an individual’s Geronda). However, the Elders can orchestrate a group shunning of individuals if they step out of line. Though an Elder may not instruct violence to an outsider, his sadness at an event can initiate his spiritual children to take matters into their own hand. Such as when Geronda Ephraim was banned from Canada temporarily, and his spiritual children started making threatening phone calls, etc., to Bishop Sotirios.

13. Members are expected to live with other members.

                1        2        3        4        5

Can’t Say/Not sure. In the monasteries, that is a given. For lay people, it is encouraged for Orthodox to stick with Orthodox, even room mates, but it’s not always a mandate.

14. Members must abide by the group’s guidelines regarding dating and intimate relationships.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. The father Confessors at the monastery follow the Rudder and mainly the Canons of St. John the Faster which are very strict on dating, marriage and carnal unions within marriage. Deviation from these rules results in penances which for carnal sins is usually no Communion for a period of time (even up to 10+ years). For dating, it’s encouraged to get a blessing first. If a spiritual Father forbids the dating, one is expected to obey so that no negative consequences result.

15. People who stay in the group do so because they are deceived and manipulated.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. Fear and guilt-tripping are utilized when one wants to defect. Geronda Ephraim is promoted as the holiest man alive, the safest guide to get to Paradise, and really the only option in America if one wants to find salvation. When monastics want to leave they are mainly told that there is no hope for them outside the monastery. They could possibly be saved but it’s almost impossible that they will be saved, etc. Some monastics have been given extreme dispensations (or condescension) in order to make them stay–though this is essentially letting the monastics do their own will which is also detrimental to their soul.

16. The group teaches special exercises (e.g., meditation, chanting, speaking in tongues) to push doubts or negative thoughts out of consciousness.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. A monastic is expected to yell the Jesus Prayer or recite it mentally ceaselessly, 24/7, until he/she acquires prayer of the heart. Daily in their nightly vigil, a monastic does prayer of the heart, which is a breathing exercise to help concentrate the nous and lower it into the heart. This could be anywhere from 1/2 hour to the entire 3+ hour vigil (if the monastic does their prayer rule before bed). All thoughts, images, fantasies, negative emotions, etc., are to be pushed with the Jesus Prayer and the cane.

17. Medical attention is discouraged, even though there may be a medical problem.

                1        2        3        4        5

Not characteristic. If medical attention is needed, it is usually taken care of. The monasteries also have pilgrims who are doctors and if they’re close spiritual children of the individual monastery, they usually are asked to do what they can, to save a trip to the outside world. It’s better for the monastics to be as healthy as possible so they can work and be useful.

18. Members are expected to serve the group’s leaders.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. That is the concept of blind obedience and submission. Most monastic superiors have a cell attendant who clean their cell, do their laundry, bring them coffee/drinks/snacks when beckoned, etc. These attendants are expected to drop everything they are doing when summoned and carry out the expected task. Actually, all monastics have this expectation. The superior is seen as an icon of Christ and whatever they do or don’t do to the elder is the same as doing it to Jesus Christ Himself. In turn, younger monastics are expected to have complete obedience to the older monastics (except in cases where older monastics are problematic or self-willed and the other monastics have been instructed not to pay attention to them).

19. Raising money is a major goal of the group.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. Everything functions on donations so it is a very high priority. Thus all the dinners, feast day celebrations, arts and crafts, bake sales, etc. The monasteries have monthly bills (mortgages, hydro, phone bills, clothing, food, etc.). Multiply individual needs by 3-40 and it starts to get pricy.

20. The group does not hesitate to threaten outside critics.

                1        2        3        4        5

Not sure/Can’t say. Outside critics are usually dismissed, ignored, or ridiculed. Usually, something they said that was erroneous is capitalized on and becomes the buzzword of mockery. If the critic is a former monastic, they are discredited as deluded with mental issues (or even possessed). Though, in some cases outside critics of the monasteries have been threatened, there is no evidence to suggest that the Superior of the monastery instructed for this to happen.

21.[R] Members are expected to make decisions without consulting the group’s leader(s).

                1        2        3        4        5

Not at all characteristic. Monastics almost always have to get a blessing from their superior before doing something. Though in some cases, the Superior may give a general blessing for certain things, or an individual monastic may be told they do not have to ask in the future. However, in general, everything needs the approval of the superior.

22.[R] Members are just as capable of independent critical thinking as they were before they joined the group.

1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. Critical thinking is regarded as an act that can drive a monastic out of the monastery. Faith opposes Reason. Geronda Ephraim teaches that the disciple should acquire the mindset of their Elder and think, feel, believe exactly as they do; even if it is wrong or they do not agree. Opposing or questioning the elder can result in the Elder publicly shaming the monastic, humbling them in front of the other monastics, or giving the other monastics an obedience to ignore and act as if this individual does not exist (until they toe the line, repent and ask forgiveness for their egotism and pride).

23. The group believes or implies its leader is divine.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. Geronda Ephraim is taught to be the holiest man alive on earth right now, and the holiest and greatest saint in the history of the orthodox church. “He’s the closest thing to Jesus Christ Himself.” He’s taught to be clairvoyant, can read hearts, can bi-locate to other places (physically and noetically), he can levitate, he is constantly rapt in divine vision, he’s seen God, etc.

24. Mind control is used without conscious consent of members.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. Though there is a control that has been given conscious consent, i.e. via submission to the elder and setting out to do blind obedience, no novice really knows what they’re getting into. Geronda Ephraim characteristically tells his older monastics, “It’s not until 15 years or so, before a monk starts to get an idea, a taste of what he’s really gotten himself into.” There are so many layers of manipulation, which are not considered manipulation by the Elder, employed to make a monastic submit and toe the line.

25.[R] Members feel little psychological pressure from leaders.

                1        2        3        4        5

Not at all characteristic. The biggest fear of the monastic, which is daily reinforced via homilies and readings, is not to sadden the Elder, thus cutting themselves off from God. There is immense psychological pressure from the leaders, especially when a monastic starts straying via self-will and idiorythmia.

26.[R] The group’s leader(s) rarely criticize members.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. The leaders continually criticize members for their spiritual benefit. This is how they acquire the virtue of humility–by being humbled–and also it acts as a mirror so they can see their true inner state and what passions they have to work on. A member can hear things such as, “You’re useless,” “You have no brain,” etc. This could be in private, though many times it’s in the presence of other or all the monastics to have a sharper prick and be more effectual.

27. Recruiting members is a major goal of the group.

                1        2        3        4        5

Not sure/Can’t say. “In the beginning it was about quantity, now it is about quality,” an abbot once said. In the beginning, it was better to have lots of black to make a more serious statement, and to show that the monasteries were wanted, needed and served a purpose. Now that a large majority of those early monastics have returned to the world, the reins have been tightened somewhat. “Geronda Ephraim is not too eager now to make monks quickly.”

28. Members are expected to consult with leaders about most decisions, including those concerning work, child rearing, whether or not to visit relatives, etc.

                1        2        3        4        5

Very characteristic. Monastics don’t have children. they do have to consult with the leaders before talking to, writing, or visiting relatives. Incoming mail is read by the Elder, though if they don”t have time, they may get a trusted monk to read and relay the most important points afterwards (this happens with almost all mail from lay people unless they are close spiritual children). Outgoing mail is sometimes intercepted and opened. In some cases, both incoming and outgoing mail will be disposed of without reaching their destination “for the benefit of the monastic.” Phone calls are monitored either by the elder or a trusted monastic, either directly on another phone listening in, or standing beside the individual. Also, a monastic must obtain a blessing before making out going calls). Visitations are not always encouraged, especially if the relatives are problematic. Many times, the monastic only has a blessing to visit in the trapeza or an enclosed area where there are other monastics who can monitor the conversations and report back to the elder. This is also done to “strengthen” the monastic who will gain courage by being in the presence of other monastics (or intimidate them into not saying anything that will get them into trouble later).

Note: [R] items are reversed in scoring by finding the absolute difference between the rating and the number 6. Do not include the [R] designations when administering the test.

At this time the GPA Scale should be used only as a research instrument. We request that researchers wishing to use the GPA Scale contact Dr. Langone (AFF, P.O. Box 2265, Bonita Springs, FL 33959).

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For more information, see:

978-613-6-26402-8-full

Cycle_of_Abuse

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