Oliver Sacks on Hallucinations (Indre Viskontas, 2013)

NOTE: The following is an interview taken from Skeptical Inquirer Volume 37.3, May/June 2013.

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What causes the startling, unbidden perception of something that seems very real but has no material existence outside of our own minds? The “poet-laureate of medicine,” Oliver Sacks, takes us through the looking glass and into the fascinating world of hallucinations. Oliver Sacks, MD, is a physician, best-selling author, and professor of neurology at the NYU School of Medicine. He is best known for his collections of neurological case histories, including The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (1985),An Anthropologist on Mars (1995), Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain (2007), and The Mind’s Eye (2010). His book Awakenings (1973) inspired the 1990 Academy Award-nominated feature film starring Robert De Niro and Robin Williams. Sacks is a frequent contributor to the New Yorker and the New York Review of Books and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His newest book isHallucinations (2012).

Indre Viskontas, a PhD neuroscientist and a Committee for Skeptical Inquiry Fellow, interviewed Sacks for our Center for Inquiry’s Point of Inquiry podcast.

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You have a new book out called Hallucinations, and some of our readers may have already come across an excerpt in the New Yorker called “Altered States,” in which you describe some of your own experiences with hallucinogenic drugs. But before we delve into that topic, please tell us what is it that distinguishes a hallucination from other fantastical mental experiences, such as waking dreams or imagination?

Well, hallucinations can occur in full consciousness, unlike dreams, and they are projected externally and appear to have a real and objective reality, unlike imagined objects and people. They are similar to percepts (objects of perception) except they are, as it were, forced percepts in which there’s nothing there to perceive. It’s as if the perceiving parts of the brain have been forcefully activated internally.

I was initially struck by the beginning of your book, where you talk about people who have hallucinations because one of their senses has an absence of stimulation. For example, Charles Bonnet Syndrome, where people who are blind experience visual hallucinations. Tell us a little more about what’s going on there.

Oliver Sacks

First, a lot of my work is done in an old-age home. I see a lot of people who have impaired vision or hearing even though they are intellectually quite intact. And a good proportion—I can’t say exactly but I would think close to a fifth of these people—develop hallucinations in the mode in which they are defective. So the blind and partially blind get purely visual hallucinations. Deaf people get auditory hallucinations, most commonly musical rather than verbal. People who’ve lost their sense of smell can get smell hallucinations.

One might say that people who have lost a limb get limb hallucinations. But I’m not quite sure whether phantom limbs belong in the same category with the others.

I open the book with a description of a patient whom I’ve been following for many years, who became very dear to me, and I was very sad when she died a few weeks ago, just short of her hundredth birthday. She was a remarkable old lady, strong and clear minded.

The nursing home phoned me saying she was apparently hallucinating and they didn’t know what was going on. When I went to see her, she was puzzled. She said, “I’ve been blind for five years. I see nothing. Why am I seeing things now?” I asked, “What sort of things?” She described scenes with animals, with people looking at her, with falling snow and a snow plow. Very vivid visual vignettes, maybe two or three minutes long, and then there would be another one.

I asked if they were like dreams, and she said, “No, they’re like film clips or maybe like going to the theater.” Interestingly, she could never recognize the people or places she hallucinated. And she felt that when they did their thing it was autonomously without any relation to her or to her own thoughts or feelings. This is rather characteristic of hallucinations in Charles Bonnet syndrome. Other hallucinations sometimes are charged with affects (emotions) or the sense of familiarity. But not the Charles Bonnet ones.

You mention that in the case of these visual hallucinations, they were of unfamiliar things. Whereas, I think you also mention that when people have musical hallucinations they are generally of familiar melodies or tunes or music they have heard before. Is that fair to say?

Yes, it’s a very striking difference. I’ve wondered whether it’s because music is an already constructed thing, whether one takes in whole pieces of music as opposed to visual things which may not be completed, unless of course, one is hallucinating a painting or photograph. It’s very much that what one sees has to be constructed like imagining an image. Whereas the musical ones are very much more like memories.

Do you know of any research in which people have looked at what’s going on in the brain during these hallucinations? Say, for example, in the visual hallucinations, there’s some other part of the brain that’s also active that’s doing the imagining or creating the scene.

Yes, well, there have been some very beautiful studies that have become possible with the advent of functional brain imaging, fMRI, and more recent forms of imaging, tensor imaging, that shows the white matter. If people were hallucinating faces, there tended to be abnormal activity in the so-called fusiform face area in the back of the right hemisphere in the inferotemporal cortex. If, on the other hand, they were hallucinating words or pseudo-words or letters, lexical hallucinations, then the visual word form area in the left hemisphere would be activated. And it looked very much that those systems of the brain involved in perceptual recognition generated hallucinations of that sort if they were being autonomously stimulated or released.

I think the studies of musical hallucinations have not sorted things out quite in this way because people hear [complete] pieces of music. What we find is a very widespread activation of all those parts of the brain, including cerebellum, basal ganglia, premotor cortex, and so forth that are activated when one listens to real music.

In these patients who are experiencing hallucinations in the absence of stimulation, and in particular, those healthy people you described who, after three days in a sensory deprivation chamber, began to hallucinate, it almost seems as though the hallucinations are a comfort rather than something they fear. Did you find that patients over time would learn to control either the content or the expression of their hallucinations?

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Modern Isolation Tank

Usually no control, or very little control, was obtained. But there tended to be accommodation. Once people with Charles Bonnet are reassured that there is no psychiatric or neurological calamity and they’re not on anything hallucinogenic, they may then become quite accepting of the hallucinations. I quote one man who imagined his eyes saying, “We know blindness is no fun so we have concocted this small syndrome as a sort of coda to your sighted life. It’s not much, but it’s the best we can do.” I’m slightly misquoting him, but that’s essentially what he imagined his eyes saying. Charles Bonnet’s grandfather who, as it were, was the original subject, would often compare his hallucinations to spectacles in a theater, and would sometimes like to go in a dark room in the afternoon for a hallucinatory matinee.

I was struck along the same lines by a description of a patient you wrote about. Her name was Gertie C. I believe she was a Parkinsonian patient. Could you tell our readers her story?

Gertie was a patient who had had the sleeping sickness, encephalitis lethargica, and a post-encephalitic syndrome which immobilized her for decades before she was put on L-dopa. She had all sorts of hallucinations, as do other patients on L-dopa. But it also become clear, when she got to know me and trust me (and I followed her for ten years or more) that she had had hallucinations long before she was put on L-dopa, mostly of a rather pastoral sort. She imagined lying in a meadow or floating in water. When she was put on L-dopa, her hallucinations became more social and more erotic, and apparently she got these quite under control so that she did not hallucinate until the evening. When it was time for her to hallucinate at 8:00 PM, she would say to her visitors, firmly but courteously, that she was expecting a gentleman visitor from out of town, and perhaps they could come another day. Her gentleman visitor, an apparition, would come through the window and brought her much comfort, both social and sexual. But she really seemed to have control of this. It never spread out of control, and it had this sort of humor that was engaging.

But she was an old hand at hallucinating. It may be that some schizophrenic patients—she was not schizophrenic—may also get on comfortable terms in this sort of way with their hallucinations. Incidentally, I mentioned in my book another patient who had Parkinson’s disease (not post-encephalitic), and he was also prone to hallucinating visitors. But they never followed him out of the apartment. They were confined to his apartment, and he could get away from them, if he wished, by going outside.

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About a year ago I cohosted a television show on the Oprah Winfrey Network, in which I had the opportunity to investigate claims of miracles across the U.S. Several of the episodes included people who reported having had visions of a religious sense. They would be very offended if I intimated at all that they might have been hallucinating. Is there a difference, at least in the medical field, between what people think of as a religious vision and a hallucination?

Well, there is certainly a difference in character. People are often rather quiet about ordinary hallucinations. But with religious experiences, they may become almost evangelical. There’s a book in front of me at this moment which has been much talked about and is on the cover of Newsweek. It’s called Proof of Heaven and subtitled, “A Neurosurgeon’s Journey into the Afterlife,” by a man called Eben Alexander.

He had a nasty bacterial meningitis. He was in a coma for several days. But when he came to, he described an enormously complex so-called near-death experience. These experiences are often rather stereotyped in quality. People may feel they’re in a dark corridor and moving towards some bright light. Feelings of bliss envelop them as they are drawn towards the light. They sense, in a way, that the light is the boundary between life and death. And they would then come back or “float back.” InMusicophilia, I described such a sequence with a subject, another surgeon as it happened, who had been struck by lightning.

And he had this sort of blissful moment and then he said, “Slam! I was back.” He was back because someone was doing CPR on his heart and his heart started beating again twenty or thirty seconds afterwards. So, his whole cosmic journey only occupied a matter of seconds. Dr. Alexander feels that his cortex was out of action while he was having his visions and therefore it must have been direct supernatural intervention. I think such a claim can’t be sustained and indeed, a few seconds of altered consciousness as one emerges from coma would be enough to give him such a state.

People in these states may insist on their reality and feel their lives are transformed. And, as you say, may get angry if one says it was a hallucination. Of course, hallucinations, being brain events in the absence of any sort of objective world around one, can’t be evidence of anything, much less proof of anything. Certainly the being in heaven hallucination may feel real at the time, but in retrospect, I think many people will almost regretfully say, well, it was a hallucination. It seemed intensely real but it can’t be.

But other people may stick with the feeling that they have been vouchsafed a glimpse of the afterlife or, indeed, they have had quite a long sojourn there. One knows that what one had imagined was not reality. But if it leaks into hallucination, it may [seem to] be. I don’t think hallucinations are evidence of reality any more than imaginings are.

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I was struck by how you describe almost a continuum of belief in one’s own hallucinations. You have people who, for example, on one extreme, have Anton’s Syndrome in which they have damage to the occipital lobe and they’re blind cortically. But they deny their impairment—despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. On the other extreme, you have people who immediately know that their hallucinations aren’t real and they’re skeptical of them. What is the difference between these two sets of people?

Anton’s Syndrome, which I only touch on briefly, does involve all sorts of misconnections from reality testing. But with complex temporal lobe hallucinations, which during surgery can be induced by stimulating the temporal lobe cortex in the right place, can produce what Dr. Penfield, a pioneering neurosurgeon, called “experiential hallucinations,” which seem intensely real. Although there may be a sort of doubling of consciousness, so the patient can say, “I know I am in Dr. Penfield’s operating room, but I am also at the corner of 25th and First Avenue in South Bend, Indiana.”

They might feel an intense sense of similarity in their investing somehow the present. I think one has to think in terms of various levels. These Charles Bonnet hallucinations are relatively low down in the ventral visual pathway. But by the time one comes to these temporal lobe hallucinations, one is finding co-activation of the amygdala and the hippocampal systems. This then may invest them, certainly, with a strong sense of emotion and familiarity. Also, to some extent, of [a sense of] reality.

You also describe—in the temporal lobe epilepsy patients—ecstatic hallucinations.

These so-called “ecstatic” hallucinations have been described for many years in the medical literature, and in the general literature. You have only to read Dostoyevsky’s descriptions of his own seizures—descriptions he also splits among many of his characters. He would suddenly be arrested and cry, “God exists! God exists!” He would feel that he was in heaven and that everything was unified and made sense. It could sometimes be followed by convulsions, but he said for five seconds of this state he would give his whole life.

In these ecstatic hallucinations, there is a sudden transport of joy and also a sense of being transported to heaven or into communication with God. These seem intensely real to people and very pleasurable. There was an interesting study a few years ago when there was an attempt to treat some patients with ecstatic seizures. A lot of them refused to take medication, and some of them even found ways of inducing their own seizures.

If a seizure is pleasant, usually there is spiking in the right temporal lobe at the same time as people are having their divine vision. They may be a bit out of touch with the sort of daily reality around them. But lives are being transformed by this.

One of my favorite case histories, which I quote in my book, is of a bus conductor in London who, as he was punching the tickets, suddenly felt that he was in heaven and told this to all of his passengers. He remained in a very elated state for three days. It sounds as if he was in an almost postictal mania. Then he continued on a more moderate level, deeply religious, until he had another bunch of seizures three years later—and he said that cleared his mind. Now he no longer believes in God and angels, in Christ, in an afterlife, or in heaven. Interestingly, the second conversion to atheism carried the same elated and revelatory quality as the first one to religion.

temporal lobe epilepsy patients—ecstatic hallucinations

I want to ask you about a personal experience of mine. I don’t think I’ve ever experienced a full-blown hallucination, at least to my knowledge. But you might remember from the conversation we once had at dinner that I am a grapheme-color synesthete. For our readers who are unfamiliar with the term, it means that I see letters and numbers in color. Is this a hallucination?

No, I think that seeing letters and numbers in color or seeing music in color is really a constant physiological happening between two areas of the cortex, a letter-reading one and a color-constructing one. I think this sort of thing, which you can probably verify from your own experience, comes at an early age, and doesn’t change. I suppose one might call it an illusion, in that one sensation is invested with the qualities of another sensation. This can take very complex forms. There’s one professional musician who could taste different pitches—she tuned her violin by taste.

That’s amazing. For me it just feels so natural, yet I know, intellectually, that the appearance of the color doesn’t happen until my brain has somehow understood the symbolic meaning of a letter, for example.

That’s interesting. And if you’re given a sort of a nonsense string of letters, that doesn’t light up at all?

Well, the letters do. But it’s not until—say if I see two intersecting lines, it’s not until my brain decides whether it’s a T or an L that I see the color. If letters are occluded and I don’t know what the letter is, there is no color. It feels instantaneous to me that the color comes on in line with the meaning of the letter. In that way, I wondered if there wasn’t a part of my brain that is overlaying a hallucination. But I can see your point that it’s more of an illusion because it’s unchanging and it’s always present.

Probably if you spoke to another letter-synesthete, you would find that he or she had different colors from you.

Yes, in fact, I’ve been working with an illustrator on a graphic novel. Her name is M.G. Lord. She’s also a synesthete, and we have very heated arguments about what colors the letters should be.

Nabokov discovered when he was a child that he was a synesthete. But he complained to his mother that the letters in the alphabet set were of the wrong color. She agreed with him. But when she said the colors they were to her, the two of them disagreed. In general, synesthetes don’t agree. This is especially striking for musical synesthetes. Liszt and Rimsky-Korsakov both thought [their musical synesthesia] was something absolute. But when they met they found that they saw very different colors and couldn’t agree about anything.

I’d like to wrap up the interview with a more personal note from your own experiences. I was very much struck by one experience you described in which you had taken a hallucinogenic drug and you were waiting for a hallucination to appear. And then nothing happened. Can you describe that experience?

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Yes, well, I was living then down on Venice Beach in the early 1960s, and there were a lot of drugs around. And people said to me, if you really want something striking take artane. Artane is a belladonna-like drug which is used in treating Parkinson’s. And they said just take twenty, you’ll still be in partial control. Anyhow, I took these tablets. At first I noticed nothing. I had a rather dry mouth, difficulty accommodating, my pupils were dilated. Nothing else. Then I heard a car door slam and footsteps, and I thought it was my friends Jim and Kathy. They often visited me on Sunday. I shouted “Come in!” and we chatted. I was in the kitchen.

There was a swinging door between the kitchen and the sitting room. I said, “How do you like your eggs done?” And we chatted in the four or five minutes while I prepared their ham and eggs. Then I walked out with the breakfast on a tray and . . . there was no one there. I was so shocked I almost dropped the tray. It hadn’t occurred to me for a moment that all this was hallucinated, at least that their part of the conversation was hallucinated. I thought I’d better watch myself. But this was followed by some even stranger things, including having a conversation with a spider. I think the spider was real enough; there weren’t any visual elements.

But then the spider said, “Hello.” And for some reason it didn’t surprise me any more than Alice was surprised by the White Rabbit. I said, “Hello yourself.” And we had a conversation. Actually, an abstract conversation about some points in analytic philosophy. Many years later, I mentioned this to a friend of mine, an entomologist, the philosophical spider with a voice like Bertrand Russell. He nodded his head and said, “Yes, I know the species.”

What is amazing is that you were expecting it. You were waiting for a hallucination.

Yes. Although I didn’t think it would take that form. I thought it would be all sorts of dramatic visual misperceptions and hallucinations as one may get with LSD or mescaline and those drugs. But this time it was purely auditory, and oddly humdrum although at the same time deeply absurd. I wonder what one would have thought had they seen me talking learnedly to a spider.

The curious case of encephalitis lethargica
The curious case of encephalitis lethargica

Indre Viskontas, a writer, neuroscientist, and opera singer, holds a doctorate in cognitive neuroscience and a master of music in vocal performance. Her scientific research explores the neural basis of memory and creativity; she has published more than thirty original peer-reviewed articles and book chapters. Viskontas is affiliated with the Memory and Aging Center at UC–San Francisco and is the associate editor of the journal Neurocase. She cohosted Miracle Detectives, a six-episode docuseries on the Oprah Winfrey Network, in which she explored the scientific explanations of paranormal experiences. She also blogs regularly at http://www.indreviskontas.com.

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What Is the Connection Between Sleep Deprivation and Hallucinations?

Sleep deprivation and hallucinations are connected because not getting enough sleep can lead to these figments of imagination. The reason why sleep deprivation and hallucinations are connected isn’t really clear. Some experts think it is simply a symptom of the brain being overtaxed. These hallucinations can be fairly extreme. People may see things that aren’t there or hear sounds that don’t really exist.
Two prominent cases of sleep deprivation and hallucinations being connected can be found in the stories of Randy Gardner and Peter Tripp, who have both held the world record for going without sleep at different times. Both men eventually suffered from severe hallucinations and even lost their ability to reason or think clearly at times. In the case of Peter Tripp, many experts think that his brain was damaged in some way by the experience, causing his personality to change for the worse. Less extreme cases of sleep deprivation can also lead to hallucinations, although usually not as severe ones.

In 1959, Peter Tripp made a record breaking 201-hour wakeathon!
In 1959, Peter Tripp made a record breaking 201-hour wakeathon!

Some people may even experience total psychotic episodes where they lose all grasp of reality. To reach this level of severity usually takes several days without sleep. For less extreme cases, a person may just hear a sound or glimpse something out of the corner of the eye.
Besides the connection between sleep deprivation and hallucinations, there are also several other health risks from not getting enough sleep. It can potentially lead to an increased risk of diabetes, for example, and it can make a person more prone to catching sicknesses. Some people may suffer with anger problems and have their personal relationships threatened. For some individuals, it can even lead to long-term mental issues like depression.

The effects of sleep deprivation.
The effects of sleep deprivation.

Over time, a lack of sleep can greatly limit a person’s cognitive abilities in many different areas, and this can be a problem in almost any kind of career.
When someone is suffering with sleep deprivation, doctors have a lot of options available. In many cases, patients may be prescribed some kind of sleeping medication. For other people, it is simpler to just make a few lifestyle changes. It is possible to become dependent on sleeping medications, especially if they are used for a long time, and they can also be dangerous when mixed with other substances like alcohol. Many physicians will avoid prescribing them if possible.
What Is the Connection Between Sleep Deprivation and Depression?

Sleep-deprived participants showed larger amygdala responses, and their amygdalas showed weaker functional connectivity with medial prefrontal cortex.
Sleep-deprived participants showed larger amygdala responses, and their amygdalas showed weaker functional connectivity with medial prefrontal cortex.

Many experts believe that sleep deprivation and depression can go hand in hand. Disrupted or dysfunctional sleep can lead to feelings of physical fatigue, cognitive impairment, and depressed mood. Conversely, feelings of depression can make it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep. Often, disorders that cause sleep impairment, such as restless legs syndrome (RLS) or sleep apnea, can cause depressive symptoms. People suffering from depression often experience an improvement in sleep quality once they receive treatment, and people suffering from sleep disorders may experience enhanced mood if treatment is able to improve their sleep quality.
Patients with depressive symptoms are often carefully screened for disorders that can disrupt sleep, and patients with sleep problems are often tested for depression. Disturbed sleep is considered one of the most definitive symptoms of depression, but physical conditions and psychological stress can cause disturbed sleep as well. Sometimes, a patient’s sleep deprivation and depression are so closely intertwined that doctors can’t determine which one came first.
Chronic sleep deprivation and depression can often occur together because sleep deprivation can make people moody, snappish, and unhappy. These symptoms can mimic depression so closely that many may be misdiagnosed with a depressive disorder when, in fact, they are suffering from a sleep disorder.

Hypnagogic Hallucinations - Sleep Cycle
Not everyone who suffers chronic sleep deprivation becomes depressed. Physicians typically believe, however, that adequate sleep is crucial to good physical and mental health. The feelings of physical and mental fatigue brought on by chronic sleep deprivation can make it hard for people with insomnia to enjoy themselves. Fatigue can make exercise difficult, and lowered activity levels can often exacerbate sleep problems. If the situation becomes severe enough, chronic sleep deprivation can lead to health problems, which can further impact mood, since people who feel physically unwell often feel psychologically unwell as a result.
Not everyone who suffers from a depressive disorder develops insomnia. Some people who suffer depressive disorders sleep more than is considered normal. In general, any abnormality with sleep is considered a possible symptom of depression.
Sleep deprivation and depression are so closely linked that, often, treating one of these disorders can improve the other. People suffering from depressive disorders often begin to sleep better as treatment relieves their symptoms of depression. This can occur because the feelings of sadness, guilt, anxiety, and helplessness that often accompany depression can make it hard to fall asleep. Many people with depression find themselves lying awake at night, unable to sleep because they can’t relax. By the same token, people struggling with sleep disorders often begin to feel more generally cheerful when they receive treatment and begin to enjoy better sleep.

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What Are the Symptoms of Sleep Deprivation?

4 Stages of Hypnagogia.
4 Stages of Hypnagogia.

The symptoms of sleep deprivation include cognitive delays, behavioral changes, and physical symptoms. In the short term, a patient may find it difficult to function. Long-term sleep deprivation can have serious health consequences, including increasing the risk of chronic diseases like diabetes. Treatment is available, and it is important to seek assistance in cases where a patient cannot address sleep deprivation independently.
Cognitively, sleep deprivation can quickly lead to significant changes in neurological function. Patients who are not sleeping well have difficulty concentrating and focusing. They often encounter problems with routine tasks and have delayed reaction times, a particular danger for drivers and heavy equipment operators. Tremors, muscle weakness, and clumsiness are also common symptoms of sleep deprivation. The cognitive symptoms are similar to those seen in patients with high levels of blood alcohol.
Behaviorally, many people with sleep deprivation experience irritability and are often quick to anger. These symptoms of sleep deprivation can be explosive and frustrating for the patient; she may lash out at people around her or grow irritated by relatively minor environmental changes, like a strong smell or the sound of conversations. Sleep deprivation can also increase stress levels and may contribute to depression and anxiety.

Hypnagogic causes
Symptoms of sleep deprivation can also include uncontrolled yawning, joint pain, and bloodshot eyes. Patients may develop appetite changes, eating more or less than usual. Some patients develop nausea and may have difficulty eating or could vomit after eating, especially if the source of the sleep deprivation is stress or anxiety. A sense of heaviness and extreme fatigue is another warning sign of sleep deprivation. Prolonged lack of sleep can lead to dry skin, slower healing of cuts and scrapes, and muscle and joint stiffness.
Treatments for patients showing symptoms of sleep deprivation can include sleep aids to help the patient sleep. Patients may also need to rearrange their schedules, practice better sleep hygiene, and work on eliminating sources of stress. Individuals at risk of losing sleep because of their jobs or studies need to be especially careful during stressful periods like final exams or the days leading up to a product release, as lack of sleep can impede their ability to function effectively. Staying up all night to study, for instance, may actually make a test-taker more prone to mistakes on the examination, while a good night of sleep could help keep the mind sharp and ready for the test.
What is Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome?

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Just as it sounds, delayed sleep phase syndrome is a disorder occurring when a person regularly cannot fall asleep at his or her desired bedtime. Those who experience this syndrome often take two or more hours to fall asleep, which not only often results in difficulty waking at the desired time but also often results in insufficient amounts of rest. It is considered a debilitating disorder because the sufferers sleep patterns do not adhere to the normal circadian rhythm, which is the body’s biological cycle that normally recurs at 24 hour intervals. Because of the inability to sleep at night, delayed sleep phase syndrome sufferers are often excessively sleepy during the day, which interferes with their work or school.
Symptoms include insomnia, lots of energy during the evening hours, and excessive daytime drowsiness. The effects of delayed sleep phase syndrome include irritability, depression and sleep deprivation. The syndrome differs from insomnia in that patients with delayed sleep phase tend to fall asleep at nearly the same time each night/morning no matter what time they go to bed.
Delayed sleep phase syndrome often begins in adolescence; although some cases begin in the childhood years. It is rare that it starts in someone older than 30. Similar symptoms, but not the syndrome itself, may be triggered by an event like staying up all night studying or partying, or shift work.
Most patients experience restful, sound sleep and wake up normally, as long as they get the appropriate number of hours of sleep. These patients are often described as “night owls” or “night people” due to their alertness and the high level of energy that tends to occur in the later evening and night hours.

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Many possible treatments exist for delayed sleep phase syndrome. Exposure to bright light in the early morning hours can be helpful. This light therapy is similar to that used for those with seasonal affective disorder.
Chronotherapy is a process of moving bedtime later by three hours each 24-hour period until a patient reaches his or her desired bedtime. Other patients have found benefits from melatonin or vitamin B12. Patients generally do not find long-term success with going to bed early, employing relaxation techniques or sleeping pills. In fact, the use of sleeping pills can aggravate the daytime drowsiness issues.
Because there is no diagnostic test to determine delayed sleep phase syndrome, a physician will take a patient’s sleep history. A patient should keep a sleep diary so that he or she can provide accurate, long-term information to the physician. Usually the symptoms must persist for at least a month for a diagnosis, but often the symptoms persist much longer.
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-connection-between-sleep-deprivation-and-hallucinations.htm
Also see: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-connection-between-sleep-deprivation-and-hallucinations.htm Auditory hallucinations in those populations that do not suffer from schizophrenia.